MARINE CORPS HISTORICAL REFERENCE SERIES     
                             Number 9

                              A Brief History Of                
           THE MARINE CORPS BASE                             
and RECRUIT DEPOT                              SAN DIEGO,
CALIFORNIA                                 1914 - 1962

                        HISTORICAL BRANCH, G-3 DIVISION         
              HEADQUARTERS, U. S. MARINE CORPS                  
            WASHINGTON, D. C.

                                 Revised 1962



                            DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY              
    HEADQUARTERS UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS                     
       WASHINGTON 25. D. C.



                      REVIEWED AND APPROVED 14 AUG 1962

                                 

                              R. E. CUSHMAN, JR.                
      Major General, U.S. Marine Corps                       
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3



            BRIEF HISTORY OF THE MARINE CORPS BASE AND RECRUIT
DEPOT                            SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA

                               TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                          
Original    Online                                              
            Page        Page

Brief History of the Marine Corps Base and Recruit            1 
         6 Depot, San Diego, California Commanders of Marine
Corps Activities at                     18          23 San
Diego, Callifornia, 1914-1962 Notes                             
                          20          25



           BRIEF HISTORY OF THE MARINE CORPS BASE AND RECRUIT
DEPOT

                            SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA

                                      By

                              Elmore A. Champie

     The Marine Corps Base at San Diego is surrounded by
evidences of the  Spanish heritage of southern California. 
Among the more conspicuous are the  euphonious place names found
everywhere, including the name San Diego itself,  and the
picturesque architecture that may be seen, not only in the city,
but  also in the permanent buildings of the Marine Corps post.
This is a natural  consequence of the fact that California was a
Spanish possession for nearly  three centuries. The region was
claimed for Spain in 1542 by Juan Rodriquez  Cabrillo, a
Portuguese navigator in the services of Charles V and the first 
white man to see San Diego Bay.  It remained under Spanish
control until 1821,  when Mexico won her independence from
Spain.  Thereafter, for about a quarter  of a century,
California was claimed by Mexico.

     Geography and the westward expansion of the United States
now brought the  Marines into their first contact with San
Diego. The town was seized by a  landing party of seamen and
Marines from the USS CYANE on 29 July 1946,  shortly after war
had broken out between the United States and Mexico.  It was  in
this operation that the Stars and Stripes was first raised in
southern  California.  Marines were also among the
reinforcements sent early the  following December to assist
Brigadier General Stephen W. Kearny, USA, and his  dragoons in
completing the final portion of their march from Santa Fe, New 
Mexico, to San Diego. Despite the harassments of Andres Pico's
lancers, Kearny  succeeded in reaching San Diego on 12 December
1846.  Hostilities in the  California theater of operations
ceased about a month later; and when the  Treaty of
Guadalupe-Hidalgo formally ended the war in 1848, Mexico ceded
to  the United States a large block of territory that included
California.

     Geography - an important element, as we have noted, in the
foregoing  events - has been a constant factor in the working
out of San Diego's destiny  with respect to the Marine Corps. 
Only 12 miles north of the Mexican border  and possessed of an
excellent harbor, the city readily recommended itself to  the
strategic eye as an expeditionary base on the west coast when
the need for  such a base became evident in the early twentieth
century.  San Diego was not  only convenient to the Pacific
approaches of Latin America, where it was  apparent that trouble
could be expected at intervals, but it could also serve 
advantageously as a port of embarkation for Hawaii and the Far
East.  Concrete  action toward establishing a base there,
however, awaited some precipitating  event.  Mexican

                                      1



  political instability was to provide the catalyst that
returned the Marines to  San Diego for the first time since the
Mexican War and subsequently caused a  permanent Marine Corps
post to be established there.

     This Mexican political instability resulted from the
revolution of 1910,  in which year, the dam of discontent with
the regime of Porfirio Diaz at last  broke.  Though styled as
president, Diaz was really a dictator; he had been  succeeding
himself in office continuously since 1884.  His policies had 
strongly favored the upper classes, and by 1910, all the
elements of political  and social revolt were present, awaiting
a leader.  When Francisco Madero  offered himself as the leader
late in the year, the disaffected flocked to his  standard, and
Mexico was plunged into civil war.

     Noting the turmoil in its neighbor to the south, the United
States  thought it expedient to make a display of armed
strength, under the disguise  of training exercises, as a broad
hint to the Mexicans that United States  nationals and property
must be respected.  The U. S. Army moved units on both  coasts
of the United States, and so did the Marine Corps.  On the east
coast,  the 1st Provisional Brigade of Marines held training
exercises at Guantanamo  Bay, Cuba, while a provisional
regiment, commanded by Colonel Charles A.  Doyen, was hurriedly
assembled at the Navy Yard, Mare Island, California, for 
"expeditionary service on the Pacific coast."<1> Since the 1st
Provisional  Brigade comprised the 1st, 2d, and 3d Regiments,
Doyen's unit was called the  4th Regiment - the first to be so
designated.  This earliest 4th Regiment was  transported to
North Island, in San Diego Bay, where it disembarked on 20 
March 1911 and established a camp to which the name Camp Thomas
was given.<2>

     About two months later, the aged Diaz gave up the attempt
to suppress the  revolt against him and resigned on 25 May 1911
to go into exile.  Following a  period of some months as
provisional president, Madero was elected to succeed  the ousted
dictator.  Civil disorder having largely ceased after the fall
of  Diaz, part of Colonel Doyen's regiment at Camp Thomas was
disbanded in June  1911; the remaining officers and men returned
to their regular stations in  July.<3>

     Peace in Mexico was short-lived, however, for Madero had
released  revolutionary forces that were to keep that country in
a state of ferment for  many years.  Madero himself, alienating
numerous supporters by failing to make  the reforms he had
promised, soon lost out in the struggle for power.  On 19 
February 1913, he was forced to resign by General Victoriano
Huerta, who had  placed himself at the head of a conservative
counterrevolution.  Three days  later, Madero was shot while in
military custody.

                                      2



     Difficulties with the United States followed.  Because of
Huerta's  usurpation and his responsibility, in President
Woodrow Wilson's opinion, for  the death of Madero, the United
States refused to recognize Huerta as the  legitimate head of
government.  As a result, relations between the two  countries
became strained.  They worsened because of an incident at
Tampico  early in 1914, involving mistreatment of American naval
personnel by Mexican  officials and the refusal of the latter to
fire a salute to the American flag  in token of apology. Shortly
afterward, information reached the United States  that a vessel
with a cargo of arms and munitions from Europe was bound for 
Veracruz.  President Wilson ordered the Atlantic Fleet to
prevent delivery of  this cargo to the Mexicans, and a force of
seamen and Marines was landed at  Veracruz on 21 April 1914.

     In these circumstances, it was considered desirable to have
a United  States force ready to land, if necessary, on the west
coast of Mexico.  The  result was the organization of the second
unit in the Marine Corps to be  designated the 4th Regiment. 
This second 4th Regiment, destined soon to be  claimed as "San
Diego's Own," was assembled at Puget Sound and Mare Island  Navy
Yards in April 1914.  Under the command of Colonel Joseph H.
Pendleton,  the regiment embarked in the USS SOUTH DAKOTA, WEST
VIRGINIA, and JUPITER and  proceeded at once to the Gulf
California, where it stood by until the  following July.<4>  By
this time, the prospect that it would need to land  seemed
remote, and the normal procedure would have been to disband it.

     It was not disbanded, however, for at least two reasons. In
the first  place, about the time the regiment was being
organized, Assistant Secretary of  the Navy Franklin D.
Roosevelt had made a trip to San Diego to inspect that  area as
a possible site for a Marine Corps "advance base station" for
the west coast similar to the one being maintained for the east
coast at Philadelphia.   He had been favorably impressed with
what he had seen.<5>  When there seemed  to be no further need
to keep the 4th Regiment on board ships in the Gulf of 
California, the unit became available to make a beginning of a
Marine Corps  post at San Diego.  In the second place, there was
the possibility that the  regiment might soon be needed again
for expeditionary duty in the Far East.

     For the return trip to United States waters, the Marines on
board the  JUPITER were transferred to the SOUTH DAKOTA and WEST
VIRGINIA.  From the  latter two vessels, the 4th Regiment
disembarked at North Island early in July  1914 - two companies
on the 7th and the remainder on the 10th.  The Marines  called
the living quarters they constructed on the island Camp
Howard.<6>

                                      3



      From this time forward, there were to be Marines stationed
at San Diego.   Though they were soon to shift their
headquarters to the mainland, Camp Howard  was thus the germ
from which the present Marine Corps Recruit Depot grew.

     The 4th Regiment remained at Camp Howard only until the
following  December, at which time, it was ordered to exposition
duty.  The first ship  had passed through the Panama Canal in
August 1914, and both San Francisco and  San Diego planned to
mark the opening of the new era in maritime intercourse  between
the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans with major celebrations in 1915
- San  Francisco with the Panama-Pacific International
Exposition, San Diego with the  Panama-California Exposition. 
The 1st Battalion of the 4th Regiment was  ordered to San
Francisco and the 2d Battalion to San Diego, each to establish 
and maintain a model camp and to provide in various other ways a
Marine Corps  exhibit as part of the display.

     The 2d Battalion left Camp Howard first.  Its field and
staff and the  25th Company moved to San Diego, presumably to
the area in Balboa Park, now  called the Palisades, on 11
December 1914.  These units were joined by the  battalion's
three remaining companies - the 26th, 27th, and 28th - on 15,
16,  and 17 December, respectively.  The regimental field and
staff moved on the  21st; it was soon, if not from the first, to
be housed in one of the  exposition buildings (the one then
called the Science and Education Building).   The next day, 22
December, when the 1st Battalion's staff and its three 
companies - the 31st, 32d, and 34th - boarded the USS West
Virginia for  transportation to the Marine Barracks, Mare Island
Navy Yard, Camp Howard  ceased to exist.  From Mare Island, the
1st Battalion would proceed to the San  Francisco exposition
later in the winter.<7>

     On 19 December 1914, Colonel Pendleton reported by telegram
to Marine  Corps Headquarters that the Marine Barracks, San
Diego, had been established  that date.<8> Regimental
headquarters was kept separate from the post at this  time, and
the first commanding officer of the latter was Major William N. 
McKelvy, who was also the commanding officer of the 2d
Battalion, 4th  Regiment.<9>

     As yet, the Marine Corps installation at San Diego was in a
tentative or  temporary status, however.  No land had been
acquired for a permanent station,  and, apparently, no steps in
that direction were being taken by the Navy  Department at this
time.  But with Colonel Pendleton the senior officer at San 
Diego, this matter was not allowed to be overlooked or
forgotten.  Impressed  from the first with the unusual
suitability of that area as a location for an  expeditionary
base, Colonel Pendleton

                                      4



had given a public address on this subject to a group or local
citizens as  early as September 1914, and it appears that he
also submitted one or more  recommendations on the subject to
Brigadier General Commandant George Barnett  in the course of
the months that followed.<10>

     In any case, progress towards a permanent base began to be
made in 1915.   In that year, Assistant Secretary of the Navy
Roosevelt paid another visit to  San Diego - to see the
exposition, but also to inspect various specific sites  that
might serve for a Marine base.<11>  After Roosevelt's return to 
Washington, General Barnett received orders from the Navy
Department to  inspect the San Diego locations and to report his
opinion as to the one most  suitable.  This he did in August,
his official report being dated the 26th of  that month.  Of the
possibilities shown him, he wrote, the only one worthy of 
consideration was a certain 232.24-acre tract on San Diego Bay
owned by the  San Diego Securities Company.  Though North
Coronado Beach Island would be  ideal for the purpose
contemplated, the general said, the price asked for that 
property put it out of the question.  On the other hand, the
232.24-acre tract  could be bought for approximately $250,000. 
This land was above high tide, he  observed, and was large
enough in area in its existing condition for both  immediate
needs and those of some time to come.

     The question now before the Navy Department had two parts:
(1) whether, a  permanent base should be established on the
coast of southern California, and  (2) where, if authorized, the
base should be located.  In addition to General  Barnett's
report, considerations bearing on both parts of the question 
supervened during the year 1915.

     The need for such a base was underscored by the fact that
no less than  twice during that year internal conditions in
Mexico made it necessary to  withdraw part of the 4th Regiment
from exposition duty and send it on an  expeditionary mission
along the west coast of that country.  First, the 2d  Battalion,
less the 29th Company, was absent from San Diego from 17 June to
10  August.<13> Then, in November, the entire 1st Battalion was
pulled out of San   Francisco and joined by two companies from
the 2d Battalion at San Diego;  Colonel Pendleton himself, with
his regimental staff, went along with this  force, which was
still watchfully waiting in the Gulf of California at the end 
of the year.<14>

     As for the location of the base, should the latter be
approved, the  officials of San Diego contributed a new factor
for consideration in the fall  of 1915; they formally offered
the Navy Department 500 acres of municipally  owned tidelands

                                       5



  adjoining the 232 acres of privately owned land if the
Department should  purchase the latter.  Josephus Daniels, the
Secretary of the Navy,  acknowledged receipt of this offer in
November.<15>

     The question of whether a permanent force of Marines should
be maintained  in southern California was submitted to the Navy
General Board; and by the  first week of January 1916, the Board
had so recommended, and Secretary  Daniels had approved.  On 8
January, Daniels wrote to General Barnett,  informing him of the
Board's action and of his own approval and stating that  San
Diego was considered to be well fitted in every way to be the
station for  the permanent force of Marines thus authorized. 
The Secretary then went on to  direct General Barnett to "take
the necessary steps to establish on a suitable  site in San
Diego a permanent Marine Corps post which will be designated as 
the Marine Barracks, San Diego, California," and to assign to it
for permanent  duty "such forces of the Marine Corps as are now,
or may hereafter become,  available on the west coast of the
United States."<16> On the same date,  General Barnett addressed
a letter to Major McKelvy, appointing him the first  commanding
officer of the permanent Marine barracks at San Diego.<17>

     Thus, the 4th Regiment, though well over half of it was
actually on  expeditionary duty in the Gulf of California at
this time, was permanently  assigned to San Diego.  At the same
time, the Marine Barracks was established  as a permanent
administrative entity.  Still located in Balboa Park, it was 
now placed on the list of posts required to submit reports and
staff returns  through the assistant adjutant and inspector,
Headquarters, Department of the  Pacific, in San Francisco.<18>
A separate barracks detachment was not  provided, however, until
several months later.

     This last development took place when the 4th Regiment was
ordered to  expeditionary duty in Santo Domingo.  The absent
units had returned to San  Diego on 3 February (at which time,
Colonel Pendleton had relieved Major  McKelvy as commanding
officer of the Marine Barracks),<19> but the complete  regiment
was to serve at its newly designated permanent home for only a
few  months.  A revolution in Santo Domingo soon created such
disturbed conditions  in that country that Rear Admiral William
B. Caperton, commanding the naval  forces in the Haitian-Santo
Domingo area, requested reinforcements. The 4th  Regiment was so
assigned.  A barracks detachment of 3 officers and 50 enlisted 
men, under Second Lieutenant Selden B. Kennedy, was now detailed
from its  personnel to remain behind at San Diego to operate the
post.<20>

                                      6



     On 6 June 1916, the Regiment departed by rail for New
Orleans, whence it  would proceed to Santo Domingo in the USS
HANCOCK.<21> "San Diego's own"  regiment was not to return to
its home city until 1924.

     By the time the 4th Regiment left for Santo Domingo,
legislation to  authorize the purchase of the 232-acre tract on
San Diego Bay for a permanent  Marine Corps expeditionary base
was well on the way to final passage by  Congress. 
Representative William Kettner, of the Congressional district
that  included San Diego, had introduced a bill for this purpose
in January 1916<22> - the same month in which Secretary of the
Navy Daniels had directed General  Barnett to establish the
permanent Marine Barracks, San Diego.  The provisions  of
Kettner's bill were incorporated into the naval appropriation
act, approved  29 August 1916.  Under this act, the Secretary of
the Navy was authorized to  purchase the tract "for advance
base, expeditionary and aviation purposes, to  cost not
exceeding $250,000," on condition that the city of San Diego
donated  500 acres of adjoining tideland "known as Dutch
Flat...."<23>

    The completion of the many details connected with the proof
and conveyance  of title to the two parcels of land required a
period of months.  All this  work was at length finished,
however, and the acquisition of the land by the  Navy Department
was consummated on 15 June 1917.<24>

     The plans for the base, one of the largest projects ever
authorized for  the Marine Corps, called for "barracks to
accommodate about 1,700  marines,...an administrative building,
gymnasium, quartermaster storehouse,  expeditionary storehouse,
power plant, with laundry and bakery attached,  dispensary,
guardhouse, officers' quarters, water supply and sewerage
systems,  electric lighting, heating, and refrigerating systems,
a sea wall, a shipping  pier, and all the other accessories
necessary to make the base complete in  every respect."<25> The
estimated cost was about four or five million  dollars.<26>

     A great amount of preliminary dredging and filling was
necessary, and  this went forward during World War I, which the
United States had entered by  the time the title to the land was
cleared.  This work continued after the  war, and it was not
until 15 March 1919 that ground-breaking ceremonies were  held
to inaugurate the first permanent construction on the site - six
barracks  buildings.<27>

     Later the same year, the Navy Department took the first
step toward the  formal organization of an expeditionary force
to occupy the base when it  should be ready.  In September 1919,
Brigadier General Pendleton was ordered  to proceed to San Diego
to activate Headquarters, 2d Advanced Base Force.   General
Pendleton had served as commander of U. S. forces in Santo
Domingo  until October 1918.  He had then assumed command of the

                                      7



  Marine Barracks, Parris Island, South Carolina, on 11 November
1918.  It was  from this post that he was detached on 25
September 1919 to duty at San Diego.   He arrived at the Marine
barracks in that city on 1 October and activated his  new
headquarters the same date.<28>

     While construction of the base was going forward, the post
at San Diego  continued to be located in Balboa Park.  Here,
during the war, the barracks  detachment had grown from the
platoon-sized organization left by the 4th  Regiment to about 10
officers and 300 men.  In addition, one or two companies  had
been attached from time to time.  After the war, there was some
reduction  in the size or the barracks detachment, but a senior
officer remained in charge; when General Pendleton arrived, the
post was under the command of  Colonel John F. McGill, and two
skeletonized companies, the 152d and 209th,  were attached.  At
the end of October 1919, General Pendleton's first month at  San
Diego, the barracks detachment had 7 officers and 183 enlisted
men, the  152d Company had 1 officer and 20 enlisted men, and
the 209th Company had 1  officer and 17 enlisted men. 
Headquarters, 2d Advanced Base Force, was still  very embryonic,
with only two officers and four enlisted men.  In addition to 
the foregoing, there was a Marine detachment of 1 officer and 41
enlisted men  at the Naval Air Station, North Island, which the
Navy Department had  activated during the war.<29>

     For nearly five years from this time, General Pendleton
remained in  charge of Marine Corps activities in the San Diego
area.  During this half  decade, there were several events of
importance from an organizational point  of view.  The 7th
Regiment, which had been organized for duty in Cuba during 
World War I, had been disbanded in 1919.  On 1 April 1921, the
1st Battalion  of the 7th Regiment was reactivated at San Diego
as a component of the 2d  Advanced Base Force.  The following
November, the latter was redesignated the  5th Brigade, and on 1
December, the 1st Battalion, 7th Regiment, became the  1st
Separate Battalion, 5th Brigade.<30>

     These organizational changes led up to an administrative
event of the  first importance.  On 1 December 1921, the new
post was placed in commission,  with Headquarters 5th Brigade as
the senior command present.<31>  Presumably,  this marked the
first occupation of the new buildings.<32>

     Another event of major importance occurred somewhat less
than two years  later.  In the summer of 1923, the Marine Corps
recruit depot for the western  half of the United States moved
from the Marine Barracks, Mare Island Navy  Yard, California, to
the new post at San Diego, debarking from the USS SIRIUS  at the
latter place on 12 August.<33>

     This recruit depot had been one of the original
installations of its kind  when it was established at Mare
Island in mid-1911 along with another at the  Puget Sound Navy
Yard and

                                       8



still others on the east coast.  In 1912, Headquarters Marine
Corps,  concluding that one large recruit depot on the west
coast would be more  efficient than the two smaller ones, had
closed the installation at Puget  Sound;<34> from that date
until it moved in 1923, the depot at Mare Island had  served as
the training place for all recruits from the western part of the
 United States.  It came to San Diego as a component of the
larger command  there, but it was destined to grow so much in
the years ahead that it would  eventually crowd all other Marine
Corps functions from the limits of the post  on the bay and,
finally, give its own name to the post.

     The recruit depot had been at San Diego approximately six
months before  the post received the designation it was to bear
for the next 24 years.  On 1  March 1924, the installation,
which had materialized as a result of the vision  and efforts of
General Pendleton and others, was officially named the Marine 
Corps Base, Naval Operating Base, San Diego.<35>

     And now the time came for General Pendleton to withdraw
from an active  role in the affairs of the base.  More than any
other one individual he had  been connected with the
transformation of the idea into reality, and when he  reached
the retirement age of 64 on 2 June 1924, he could step back with
the  satisfying knowledge that the groundwork was solidly laid. 
He was to live  until 4 February 1942, an active and
public-spirited citizen of Coronado,  across the bay from San
Diego, and was thus to see the developments of nearly  18 years
following his retirement.<36> But like Count Cavour, the great 
nineteenth-century unifier of Italy, who is reported to have
said with  satisfaction on his deathbed, "Italy is made,"
General Pendleton could say on  the day that he retired, "The
San Diego Marine Corps Base is made." Though  growth would
occur, the fundamentals had been established.

     As a matter of fact, no major construction was to take
place after  General Pendleton's retirement until 1939, though
minor improvements were  made.  Among the latter was the
beautification of the grounds.  Since there  was a high content
of alkali and other salts in the sand dredged up from the 
channel in San Diego Bay and used to build up the tidelands, it
was necessary  to haul in dirt to cover this sand in areas where
grass was to be sown or  plants or trees set out.<37>  Minor
construction work was also done, such as  the completion of the
paving of the parade ground in 1930.<38>

     Major development of the base, however, was described as
being at a halt  in January 1926.<39>  As of that date, the
following were listed as completed:  a building converted for
administration, a large power plant, an ice plant, a  laundry, a
bakery, carpentry and machine shops, a quartermaster storehouse,
 seven barracks buildings, and five sets of officer's quarters. 
One writer  gave the total area of the reservation

                                       9



  as "600 odd acres."<4O>  A more specific figure, 676 acres,
was given by  others in 1932 and 1933.  On this land in 1933,
there were 23 buildings.   Though more than four million dollars
had been spent on the base by this time,  it was estimated, in
terms of the original plans, to be still only about 60  percent
complete.<4l>  But, as the 1926 writer pointed out, the
important  installations were there, and expansion in case of
emergency could readily  take place.  A sudden large increase in
personnel would require no more than  the construction of a
cantonment.<42>

     Recreational facilities had not been neglected in the
development thus  far.  Free motion pictures were shown three
times weekly, and the Marines  could play baseball, football,
basketball, tennis, and handball and could box,  wrestle, or
workout in a small gymnasium.  Other entertainment was provided
at  intervals by smokers, band concerts, and dances; music for
the latter was  furnished by an orchestra consisting of several
members of the Post Band.<43>

     The 4th Regiment was welcomed back from Santo Domingo to
its home city  and station, with appropriate celebrations, on 25
August 1924.<44>  It soon  absorbed the other infantry troops
being maintained at the base for  expeditionary purposes, but
its strength was allowed to decrease to skeleton  size in the
course of the following year.<45>  Even so, some of its men were
 detailed by the base commander to special duty to assist the
base operating  force, which, at this time, consisted of two
companies with strengths  inadequate to cope with the
responsibilities assigned.<46>

     Toward the end of 1926, the men of the 4th Regiment had an
opportunity  for something more exciting than garrison routine. 
A recrudescence of  robberies of the United States mails,
featured by a particularly brazen and  bloody attack on a mail
truck at Elizabeth, New Jersey, on 14 October 1926,  led to a
request by the Post Office Department for the services of the
Marine  Corps to bring the situation under control. The Marines
had been called upon  once before to guard the mails, when a
similar situation had developed in the  fall of 1921, and they
had quickly put a stop to the robberies.  There had  been
virtually no incidents after the Marines had entered the picture
on that  occasion, and after they had been withdrawn in the
spring of 1922, the Post  Office Department, having provided
itself with civilian armed guards, had been  able to carry on
satisfactorily for some four years.

     In 1926, when the Marines were called on the second time,
the country was  divided into an eastern and a western
mail-guard zone, with Brigadier General  Logan Feland commanding
in the east and Brigadier General Smedley D. Butler in  the
west.  Most of the personnel for the eastern zone came from the
east-coast  expeditionary force at Quantico, Virginia.  The
western

                                      10



mail-guard zone was manned by the west-coast expeditionary force
from San  Diego - that is to say, by the 4th Regiment.

     Although it was a change from life at the base, mail-guard
duty on this  occasion proved to be scarcely more exciting.  No
incidents occurred after the  Marines began guarding trucks,
railway cars, and various strategic points in  the handling of
the mail.<47> These quiet conditions, however, made the 
withdrawal of the Marines feasible sooner than would normally
have been the  case, when a need for their services on
expeditionary duty outside the United  States arose at the
beginning of the new year.

     The early withdrawal was considered necessary because of
conditions in  Nicaragua and China, where American interests
were endangered by civil strife.   The east-coast expeditionary
force, reinforced, was sent to Nicaragua, where,  under the
command of General Feland, it was designated the 2d Brigade. 
Similarly, the west-coast expeditionary force (4th Regiment),
reinforced by  various other units, was to become the 3d Brigade
in China, commanded by  General Butler.

     The China-bound units were assembled and embarked at San
Diego in the  largest operation of this kind at that base before
World War II.  The first  contingent sent out consisted of the
4th Regiment (less the 2d Battalion),  which left for Shangahai
on 3 February 1927 aboard the USS CHAUMONT.  It was  thought at
the time that these troops would be sufficient, but
reinforcements  were soon requested.  Thereupon, the 6th
Regiment (less the 3d Battalion), the  3d Brigade Headquarters
and Headquarters Company, and Service Company, one  battery of
the 10th Regiment (Artillery), and a Marine aviation squadron
were  embarked on board the USS HENDERSON, which sailed from San
Diego on 7 April.   General Butler had already arrived in
Shanghai on 25 March, having sailed from  San Francisco, where
he had maintained his headquarters while commanding the  Western
Mail-Guard Zone.

     Additional units were sent on board the 55 President Grant
a commercial  vessel chartered for the purpose, to Olongapo,
Philippine Islands, to be held  in reserve; but they soon
afterwards joined the 3d Brigade at Shangahai.   These units
included the 3d Battalion, 6th Regiment, the 2d Battalion, 4th 
Regiment, the 1st Battalion, (less one battery), 10th Regiment,
one light tank  platoon, the 5th Company of Engineers, and part
of another Marine aviation  squadron, the remainder of which was
to be picked up at Guam en route.<48>

     In all, more than 4,000 Marines were staged and embarked at
the Marine  Corps Base, San Diego, for this operation.<40>  As a
result, the base was to  be short of personnel for some years
thereafter, with nothing approaching an  expeditionary force in
being.  Though San Diego was still the permanent home

                                      11



  of the 4th Regiment, that organization was never to return. 
It was the only  component of the 3d Brigade that had not been
disbanded by mid-1929.<50>  Left  in Shanghai when the rest of
the 3d Brigade moved to Tientsin in 1927, it  contributed
greatly to the peace of mind of the residents of the
International Settlement.

     Ten years later, history almost repeated itself, when the
Headquarters 2d  Brigade (Brigadier General J. C. Beaumont) and
the 6th Marines, with a battery  of antiaircraft artillery, were
rushed out to Shanghai in August 1937 from the  Marine Corps
Base at San Diego.  Their mission was to help 4th Marines and 
certain European troops (principally British and Italian) keep
the warring  Chinese and Japanese out of the rich International
Settlement.  By the  following February, the fighting had passed
west of Shanghai, and the Brigade  Headquarters and 6th Marines
returned to San Diego.  The 4th Marines stayed in  Shanghai
until November 1941.  By then, only a week or so before the
Japanese  attack on the United States in World War II, the war
clouds had become so  threatening that the 4th Marines was
evacuated to Olongapo, on Subic Bay in  the Philippines, lest it
be trapped in China.

     The outbreak of the war found the regiment at Subic Bay,
and by Christmas  of 1941, it had been transferred to the
command or General MacArthur and  assigned by him to defend the
beaches of Corregidor.<51>  When the last  bastion of the
Philippines fell, the 4th Marines ceased to exist as an 
official unit of the Marine Corps.  Its traditions were to be
carried on,  however, by a new 4th Marines organized early in
1944 from Marine raider  battalions in the South Pacific.  The
new 4th Marines was to capture Emirau,  in the St. Matthias
Group of the Admiralties, in March 1944, to land on Guam  the
following summer, and later to form a component of the 6th
Marine Division  when it helped take Okinawa.<52>

     Though the 4th Marines was never to come back to San Diego,
the base at  that city was to have a prominent role in the
events of the 1930's, as the  Marine Corps took the necessary
steps to realize one of the most important  developments of its
entire evolution as an amphibious force.

     The initial step became possible as a result of the
withdrawal by 1933 of  the last of the force sent to Nicaragua.
Sufficient officers and men were then  available for a major
reorganization of the Corps with respect to its mission  and its
relationship with the Navy in carrying out this mission. Major
General  John Russell drafted for the Commandant of the Marine
Corps, Major General Ben  H. Fuller, a set of recommendations
setting forth the form this reorganization  should take.
Approved by the Commandant and the Secretary of the Navy, these 
recommendations were promulgated on 7 December 1933 as Navy
Department General  Order No. 241, creating the Fleet Marine

                                      12



Force.  The key provision of the order was that the Fleet Marine
Force should  be an integral part of the fleet.  Its
establishment meant that the Marine  Corps had "finally and
unequivocally committed itself to the doctrine that its 
paramount mission in wartime was to serve the fleet by seizing
bases for naval  operations and in peacetime to prepare for the
successful execution of that  function."<53>

     The Fleet Marine Force was to have two principal
components: one on the  east coast, at Quantico, Virginia, and
the other on the west coast, at San  Diego.  The headquarters
was established at Quantico in 1933.  It was  doubtlessly
advantageous during the formative years of the new command that 
its headquarters should be near Washington and Marine Corps
Headquarters; but  by 1935, General Russell, who was now
Commandant, was convinced that it had  become far more important
for the headquarters of the Fleet Marine Force to be  in close
contact with the fleet.  Since the bulk of the fleet was based
on the  west coast, the next step was obvious.  Headquarters
Fleet Marine Force was  transferred to the Marine Corps Base,
San Diego, in September 1935.<54>

     Also in 1935, the east- and west-coast components of the
Fleet Marine  Force were given the status of brigades - the 1st
and 2d Brigades,  respectively.  As of 30 June 1935, the
component at San Diego consisted of the  6th Marines (less the
3d Battalion), the 2d Battalion (less Battery F) of the  10th
Marines, and Aircraft Two.<55> With the approach of war, the 1st
and 2d  Marine Brigades were to become the 1st and 2d Marine
Divisions in February  1941.<56>

     Meanwhile, the case had been functioning in the other half
of its dual  capacity; that is, while it operated as an
expeditionary base and (later) as  one of the Fleet Marine Force
Bases, it was also operating as a recruit depot.

     The length of the recruit training period and the amount of
time  apportioned to various subjects varied from time to time;
but since the  essentials did not change, a good idea regarding
the nature of the training  given recruits at San Diego in the
twenties and thirties can be obtained from  the program in
effect in 1932.

     In that year, the course for recruits was of eight weeks
duration.  The  first three weeks were devoted to basic
indoctrination in such subjects as  Marine Corps history and
customs and to drill, first without arms then with  arms. 
Following this, three weeks were spent on the rifle range, after
which  the final two weeks were used for instruction in the
bayonet and practice in  guard duty, company drills, ceremonies,
etc.<57>

     After basic training, selected recruits were given four
additional weeks  of instruction in the Sea School, which was

                                      13



  organized in 1923 shortly after the recruit depot moved to San
Diego.  Here,  the purpose was to prepare them for duty with one
of the Marine detachments on  board vessels of the fleet.  They
were taught elementary gun drill, military  and naval etiquette,
duties of orderlies and messengers aboard ship, functions  they
might have in emergency drills at sea like fire, abandon ship,
or  collision, what the routine would be like aboard ship, the
fact that ships  have decks rather than floors, overheads
instead of ceilings, and bulkheads in  lieu of walls, that right
is starboard and left is port, that kitchens are  galleys, that
fountains are scuttlebutts, that permission to smoke is conveyed
 by the statement that the smoking lamp is lit, and various
other things  strange and perhaps wonderful to most landlubbers'
ears.<58>

     Like the curriculum of basic training, that of the Sea
School varied from  time to time in duration and emphasis.  In
1932, it was a four weeks' course,  but the demand for Marine
replacements in the fleet was so urgent at that time  that most
men completed no more than one week there before being
transferred  to a ship.  It even happened, occasionally, that
men with no Sea School  instruction at all were sent to the
fleet, but only when it was  unavoidable.<59>

     By 1940, it was possible to enforce higher standards of
preparation for  sea duty, and prior to such assignment, all
enlisted Marines who had not had  previous sea duty were
required to pass the course at the Sea School.  The  majority of
the students still came from the recruit depot, but now, there
was  a sprinkling of noncoms among them.  The requirements for
entrance, which  varied with the exigencies of the service,
were, in general, the following:  (1) the man, if a recruit,
must stand in the upper third of his platoon at the  recruit
depot, (2) be recommended by his instructor, (3) be at least 69
inches  tall, (4) be qualified with the rifle, and (5) must
express a desire to go to  sea.<60>

     In 1940, the course lasted only three weeks, with an
attendance at any  one time of about 90 men.  Although the
course was scaled to the average  intelligence and every effort
was made to help students who applied  themselves, as of June
1940, about 13 percent of those accepted for entrance  were
failing to make the grade.<61>

     The approach of war resulted in a great enlargement of the
facilities of  the base.  Emergency expansion of these
facilities began in September 1939,  the month in which World
War II broke out in Europe, and resulted in the  construction of
a base depot of 27 storehouses, a defense-battalion barracks, 
mess facilities, hundreds of 16-men huts for the recruit depot,
a post  exchange, a recruit parade ground, a neuropsychiatric
building, dental and  dispensary buildings, new roads, and even
a railroad.  Later construction  included

                                      14



an addition to the officers' mess, some bachelor officers'
quarters, several  handball and tennis courts, a long-needed &
swimming pool, an amphibian  tractor shed, a communications
school, a new administration building, and a  new auditorium.
The last two structures were ready for use in January and 
February of 1943.<62>

     Despite the new construction begun in 1939, the facilities
of the Marine  Corps Base were inadequate to enable it to
continue in its dual capacity as a  Fleet Marine Force base and
a recruit depot.  Bordered as it was on the north  by a
developed part of the city of San Diego, on the east by the
municipal  airport (Lindbergh Field), and on the west by the
Naval Training Station, it  could obtain continuous acreage for
expansion only by reclaiming tidelands in  San Diego Bay, a
process that had gone as far as it could.  It had been 
necessary from the beginning to maintain a rifle range off the
base, and a  small tract of land a few miles northeast of La
Jolla had been rented from the  city of San Diego for this
purpose through the years.  In 1934, additional  land was rented
from San Diego in the Kearny Mesa area, 10 or 12 miles north 
and a little east of the city, to be used mostly for artillery
and machine-gun  practice.  After World War II began in Europe,
the Marine Corps began to  construct buildings in the Kearny
Mesa area, referring to them collectively as  Camp Holcomb. By
the middle of 1941, the President had declared an unlimited 
national emergency.  Volunteers were pouring into the recruit
depot, the 2d  Division of the Fleet Marine Force had moved from
the Marine Corps Base to the  camp in the Kearny Mesa area, and
the name of the camp had been changed from  Camp Holcomb to Camp
Elliott.<63>

     During the months after the attack on Pearl Harbor had
brought the United  States into the conflict, the training of
individual replacements and units  for duty against the Japanese
in the Pacific was greatly expanded.  In March  1942, the Navy
Department announced the acquisition of approximately 132,000 
acres of the Rancho Santa Margarita y Las Flores, which had once
belonged to  the Pico brothers, Andres and Pio, prominent in
California history before,  during, and after the War with
Mexico, 1846-48.  The construction of Camp  Joseph H. Pendleton
was immediately begun on a part of this huge reservation,  some
eight miles from Oceanside, some 45 miles north of San Diego. 
Camp  Pendleton, which was ready to be occupied by troops the
following September,  was to provide large scale tactical
training for organizations before they  were shipped out to the
Pacific; its immense area and varied terrain were near  ideal
for this purpose.<64> Camp Elliott, which by September 1942 had
become  the home of the Fleet Marine Force Training Center, West
Coast, had the  principal mission of training individual
replacements for combat units  overseas.<65>

                                      15



  This expansion, of course, was outside the limits of the
Marine Corps Base  proper, and it was not confined to the two
installations mentioned.  There  were, for example, Camp C.J.
Miller, which was built at the former Del Mar  Race Track and
which was used for a concentrated athletic and conditioning 
program; Camp Gillespie, which opened in May 1942 to give
paratrooper training  to Marines, who thus became "Paramarines;"
 Camp Dunlap, near Niland,  California, for special artillery
training and the Marine Corps Air Station,  El Toro, for
instruction in aviation.

     During the war, practically all instruction after basic
training thus  came to be furnished in installations
supplementary to, or at least separate  from, the Marine Corps
Base proper, training itself, shortened to seven weeks, 
continued to be provided by the latter, and the Sea School
continued to  function there.  In addition, the Marine Corps
Base operated the Signal  School, which taught radio and
field-telephone work, the First Sergeants'  School, and the
Motor-Transport School, which conducted a mechanics' course  and
a course for drivers (principally driving without lights at
night and  driving in convoy).

     Training in the San Diego area was never to shrink back to
its prewar  dimensions.  Preparation for service with the Fleet
Marine Force was to remain  separate from the Marine Corps Base
proper.  Most of the installations that  sprang up during the
war were to be closed in the postwar period, but Camp  Pendleton
and the Marine Corps Air Station, El Toro, in particular, were
to be  made permanent and to constitute important posts of the
Marine Corps  establishment after World War II.  In addition to
its other activities, Camp  Pendleton was to operate various
schools in the postwar period; for example,  by mid-1947, the
Communications School and the Cooks' and Bakers' School had 
been transferred to it.<67>

     With the surrender of Japan in 1945, it became necessary to
set up a  procedure in the San Diego area to help demobilize
wartime strength of the  Marine Corps.  At the Marine Corps
Base, the 1st Separation Company and the  West Coast
Reclassification and Redistribution Center were set up to handle
 casuals, while Camp Pendleton processed units returning from
the Pacific for  demobilization.  In September 1946, upon
transfer of the 1st Separation  Company to the West Coast
Reclassification and Redistribution Center, all  separation work
at the Marine Corps Base was consolidated.<68>

     After World War II, as during the war, the principal
activity on the  Marine Corps Base proper was that of the
recruit depot.  At length, official  cognizance was taken of
this fact in the form of redesignation of the base,  effective 1
January 1948, as the Marine Corps Recruit Depot, San Diego.<69>

                                      16



     This step had been taken 13 months earlier with respect to
the east-coast  recruit depot, when the Marine Barracks, Parris
Island, had been redesignated  the Marine Corps Recruit Depot,
Parris Island.  With this change at San Diego,  the two coasts
showed a symmetry in Marine Corps organization they had never 
possessed previously.  Just as the two recruit depots were now
balanced  against each other, Camp Pendleton had an opposite
number on the east coast in  Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, and
the Marine Corps Air Station at El Toro,  California, matched
the similar station at Cherry Point, North Carolina.

     When the Communists made their attack in Korea on 25 June
195O, the San  Diego area was ready to do its share to meet the
emergency.  The Recruit  Depot, which by this time had
lengthened the basic-training course to about 10  weeks,
streamlined the course to eight weeks and began turning out as
many as  14 platoons at a time as compared with the two or so
previously.<70> The 1st  Marine Division, based at Camp
Pendleton, and the 1st Marine Air Wing at El  Toro, were readied
for action, and both these posts became training places for 
reservists called to active duty.

     Few physical changes have occurred at the Recruit Depot at
San Diego in  recent years, but as at Parris Island, training
procedures and techniques have  been modified to produce the
best possible type of recruit graduate.  Drill  instructors have
been picked with extreme care and thoroughly indoctrinated in 
the procedures required to assure the proper mental and physical
training of  each recruit.  Three instructors are provided each
recruit platoon, with each  DI receiving additional pay of $30
per month to help compensate for the long  hours the job
requires.  The drill instructor utilizes example and other 
leadership techniques to gradually bring his platoon from the
recruit status  to that of a Marine ready for whatever may be
required of him. Like Parris  Island, the San Diego Recruit
Depot produces Marines possessed of the best of  past experience
together with the mental and physical dexterity provided by  the
latest Marine instructional techniques and equipment.<71>

     Since Korea, the Marine Corps Recruit Depot at San Diego
and its allied  installations have not been called on to meet
any special emergency.  But they  stand ready, with the rest of
the Marine Corps, to do their part any time in  honoring the
tradition of their service as "the first to fight."

                                      17



                    COMMANDERS OF MARINE CORPS ACTIVITIES AT    
                  SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA, 1914-1962

                    Marine Barracks, U. S. Naval Station,       
                    San Diego, California

 Maj          William N. McKelvey                19 Dec 1914 -
16 Jun 1915             None designated                    17
Jun 1915 - 13 Jul 1915 Capt         Ellis B. Miller             
      14 Jul 1915 -  7 Jan 1916 Maj          William N. McKelvey
                8 Jan 1916 -  2 Feb 1916 Col          Joseph H.
Pendleton                 3 Feb 19l6 -  5 Jun 1916 2dLt        
Seldon B. Kennedy                   6 Jun 1916 - 15 Jun 1916
1stLt        Seldon B. Kennedy                  16 Jun 1916 - 28
Sep 1916 2dLt         Earl C. Long                       29 Sep
1916 - 22 Oct 1916 1stLt        Earl C. Long                    
  23 Oct 1916 - 18 Dec 1916 Capt         Thomas C. Turner       
           19 Dec 1916 - 21 Jan 1917 1stLt        Earl C. Long  
                    22 Jan 1917 - 28 Jan 1917 Capt        
Thomas C. Turner                   29 Jan 1917 - 15 Mar 1917 Maj
         Thomas C. Turner                   16 Mar 1917 - 18 Oct
1917 LtCol        Carl Gamborg-Andresen              19 Oct 1917
- 14 Oct 1918 Maj          David M. Randall                   15
Oct 1918 -  4 Apr 1919 Col          John F. McGill              
       5 Apr 1919 - 25 Jul 1921             None designated     
              26 Jul 1921 - 24 Oct 1921 LtCol        James McE.
Huey                    25 Oct 1921 -  3 Jan 1922 Maj         
Eugene P. Fortson                   4 Jan 1922 -  7 Mar 1922
LtCol        Giles Bishop, Jr.                   8 Mar 1922 - 29
Feb 1924

                              Marine Corps Base,                
           San Diego, California

MajGen       Joseph H. Pendleton                 1 Mar 1924 - 31
Mar 1924 Col          James McE. Huey                     1 Apr
1924 - 11 May 1924 MajGen       Joseph H. Pendleton             
  12 May 1924 -  1 Jun 1924 Col          John T. Myers          
            2 Jun 1924 -  9 Apr 1925 LtCol        William H.
Pritchett               10 Apr 1925 - 12 May 1925 Col         
John T. Myers                      13 May 1925 - 31 Oct 1925 Col
         Alexander S. Williams               1 Nov 1925 - 24 Feb
1926 BriGen       Smedley D. Butler                  25 Feb 1926
- 12 Mar 1926 LtCol        William H. Pritchett               13
Mar 1926 -  9 May 1926 BriGen       Smedley D. Butler           
      10 May 1926 -  3 Mar 1927 Maj          Benjamin A. Moeller
                4 Mar 1927 - 31 Mar 1927 LtCol        William H.
Pritchett                1 Apr 1927 -  8 Aug 1927 Col         
Charles H. Lyman                    9 Aug 1927 - 24 Jun 1928 Maj
         Benjamin A. Moeller                25 Jun 1928 -  9 Jul
1928 BriGen       Dion Williams                      10 Jul 1928
-  4 Apr 1929 Col          Larry R. Lay                        5
Apr 1929 - 30 Jan 1930 BriGen       Robert H. Dunlap            
      31 Jan 1930 - 25 Dec 1930 BriGen       John H. Russell    
               26 Dec 1930 - 22 Nov 1931 Col          Charles H.
Lyman                   23 Nov 1931 -  6 Dec 1931 BriGen      
Frederick L. Bradman                7 Dec 1931 - 29 Jan 1932

                                      18



Col          Harry R. Lay                       30 Jan 1932 - 26
Feb 1932 BriGen       Frederick L. Bradman               27 Feb
1932 - 17 Dec 1933 Col          Rush R. Wallace                 
  18 Dec 1933 -  6 Jan 1934 BriGen       Frederick L. Bradman   
            7 Jan 1934 - 24 Mar 1934 Col          Rush R.
Wallace                    25 Mar 1934 -  6 Jun 1934 BriGen     
 Frederick L. Bradman                7 Jun 1934 - 30 Apr 1935
Col          Rush R. Wallace                     1 May 1935 -  5
May 1935 BriGen       Douglas C. McDougal                 6 May
1935 - 29 Jan 1937 Col          Alley D. Rorex                  
  30 Jan 1937 - 25 Feb 1937 BriGen       Douglas C. McDougal    
           26 Feb 1937 - 18 May 1937 MajGen       Louis Mac.
Little                  19 May 1937 - 14 Mar 1938 LtCol       
Harry L. Smith                     15 Mar 1938 - 12 Apr 1938
MajGen       Louis Mac. Little                  13 Apr 1938 - 15
Aug 1939 BriGen       Clayton B. Vogel                   16 Aug
1939 - 31 Aug 1939 BriGen       Richard P. Williams             
   1 Sep 1939 - 19 Sep 1939 BriGen       William P. Upshur      
           20 Sep 1939 -  7 Dec 1941 Col          William H.
Rupertus                 8 Dec 1941 - 18 Mar 1942 Col         
Matthew H. Kingman                 19 Mar 1942 -  2 Apr 1942 Col
         James L. Underhill                  3 Apr 1942 - 18 Aug
1942 BriGen       James L. Underhill                 19 Aug 1942
- 31 Mar 1943 Col          William C. James                    1
Apr 1943 - 31 Jan 1944 Col          Roswell Winans              
       1 Feb 1944 - 15 Feb 1944 Col          William C. James   
               16 Feb 1944 - 28 Mar 1944 Col          Roswell
Winans                     29 Mar 1944 - 11 Apr 1944 Col        
 William C. James                   12 Apr 1944 - 16 Apr 1944
Col          Roswell Winans                     17 Apr 1944 - 26
Apr 1944 BriGen       Matthew H. Kingman                 27 Apr
1944 -  8 Aug 1944 BriGen       Archie F. Howard                
   9 Aug 1944 - 12 Jun 1945 Col          John Groff             
           13 Jun 1945 - 12 Jul 1945 MajGen       Earl C. Long  
                    13 Jul 1945 - 23 Jan 1946 Col          Miles
R. Thacker                   24 Jan 1946 - 25 Apr 1946 Col      
   Harry B. Liversedge                26 Apr 1946 -  2 Jun 1946
Col          Gilder D. Jackson, Jr.              3 Jan 1946 - 28
Jul 1946 BriGen       Leo D. Hermle                      29 Jul
1946 -  5 Dec 1946 MajGen       Leo D. Hermle                   
   6 Dec 1946 - 31 Dec 1947

                         Marine Corps Recruit Depot,            
               San Diego, California

MajGen       Leo D. Hermle                       1 Jan 1948 - 31
Aug 1949 MajGen       William T. Clement                  1 Sep
1949 - 21 Apr 1952 BriGen       William J. Whaling              
  22 Apr 1952 - 12 Sep 1952 MajGen       John T. Walker         
           13 Apr 1952 - 30 Jan 1954 MajGen       John C.
McQueen                    31 Jan 1954 - 25 Jul 1956 MajGen     
 Thomas A. Wornham                  26 Jul 1956 - 26 Oct 1959
BriGen       Bruno A. Hochmuth                  27 Oct 1959 - 30
Nov 1959 MajGen       Victor H. Krulak                    1 Dec
1959 - 14 Feb 1962 MajGen       Sidney S. Wade                  
  15 Feb 1962 -

                                      19



                                     NOTES

(1)  CMC, "Report"...in "Annual Reports of the Navy Department
for the Fiscal  Year 1911" (Washington: Navy Department, 1911)
p. 530, hereinafter "CMC  Report" with year.

(2)  "Ibid.," p. 531; "Muster Rolls," 4th Regiment, Mar11.

(3)  "CMC Report," 1911, p. 531; "Muster Rolls," 4th Regiment,
Jun11; "Muster  Rolls," Provisional Battalion, Camp Thomas, San
Diego, Jul11.

(4)  "CMC Report," 1914, p. 470.

(5)   "Army and Navy Journal," v. LI, no. 35 (2 May 1914), p.
1099.

(6)   "Muster Rolls," 4th Regiment, Jul14.

(7)   "Muster Rolls," 4th Regiment, Dec14; "Official Guide Book
of the  Panama-California Exposition" (San Diego, 1915), p. 8;
Edward J. P. Davis,  "The United States and U. S. Marine Corps
at San Diego" (San Diego, privately  published, 1955), p. 52;
"The Marines in San Diego County," "Union Title-Trust  Topics",
v. VII, no. 3 (May-June 1953), p. 4.

(8)  See Orders Section in case file of Pendleton, Joseph H.,
0753-2.

(9)  "Muster Rolls," 2d Battalion, 4th Regiment, Dec14.

(10)  Davis, "op. cit.," p. 53; "Marines in San Diego County,"
"Union  Title-Trust Topics", "loc. cit."

(11)  Davis, "op. cit.", p. 53.

(12)  Correspondence of the Office of the Secretary, 1897-1926,
File 16721-95,  General Records of the Navy Department, National
Archives.

(13)  "CMC Report," 1915, pp. 762-763.

(14)  "CMC Report," 1916, p. 766.

(15)  Davis,"op. cit.," p. 54.

(16)  Correspondence of the Office of the Secretary, 1897-1926,
File 16721-95,  General Records of the Navy Department, National
Archives.

(17)  See Commandant Barnett letter in case file of McKelvy,
William H., 0634.

                                      20



(18)  Marine Corps Orders, No. 9 (Series 1916), 1 March
published in "Marines  Magazine," v. I, no. 4 (Apr 1916), p. 31.

(19)  See Record or Military Service Section in case file of
Pendleton, Joseph  H., 0753-1.

(20)  "Muster Rolls", Barracks Detachment, Marine Barracks, San
Diego, Jun16.

(21)  "CMC Report," 1916, p 764.

(22)  Davis, "op. cit.," p. 54.

(23)  For the text or the appropriation act see Elwin A. Silsby,
comp., "Navy  Yearbook," 1920-1921: ..."Resume of Annual Naval
Appropriation Laws from 1883  to 1921, Inclusive"...
(Washington: Government Printing Office, 1922), p. 436.

(24)  "CMC Report," 1917, pp. 110 and 847, respectively.

(25)  Navy Department, Bureau of Yards and Docks, "Activities of
the Bureau of  Yards and Docks, Navy Department, World War,
1917-1918 (Washington: Government  Printing Office, 1921), p. 93.

(26)  "Ibid.," for an estimate of "approximately $5,000,000;"
"Report of the  Chief of the Bureau of Yards and Docks," in
"AnnRepts of NavDept, 1918", p.  431, states "about $4,000,000."

(27)  "CMC Report," 1919, p. 2649; San Diego Federal Writers
Project, Works  Progress Administration, State of California,
"San Diego, A California City"  (San Diego: San Diego Historical
Society, 1937), p. 68.

(28)  See Record of Military Service Section in case file of
Pendleton, Joseph  H., 0753-1; for the spelling of Parris
Island, see Marine Corps Orders, No. 27  (Series 1917), 22 June,
par. 303 and No. 32 (Series 1919), 3 May, par. 554.

(29)  "Muster Rolls," Marine Barracks, San Diego.

(30)  "Muster Rolls" of organizations noted.

(31)  See Record of Military Service Section in case file of
Pendleton, Joseph  II., 0753-1.

(32)  "The Story of San Diego," "Leatherneck", v. XV no. 6 (June
1932), p. 10,  states that the newly completed barracks were
first occupied in December 1921  by Marines who moved in from
Balboa Park; "To Open New Barracks at San Diego,  California,"
"Leatherneck"," v. IV, no. 18 (March 1921), p. 1, states that
the  six barracks were to be opened on 15 March 1921.

                                      21



  (33)  "Muster Rolls," Recruit Depot Detachment, San Diego,
Jul23.

(34)  "CMC Report," 1911, pp. 523-524; "CMC Report," 1912, pp.
578-579.

(35)  "Muster Rolls," Headquarters Company, 5th Brigade, Marine
Corps Base,  Naval Operating Base, San Diego, Mar24.

(36)  See Record of Military Service Section in case file of
Pendleton, Joseph  H., 0753-1.

(37)  "Marine Base Weekly" (San Diego), 8 June 1926, p. 1; "CMC
Report," 1927,  p. 1204.

(38)  "Marine Base Bulletin," v. I, no. 3 (11 July 1930), p. 5.

(39)  Col Alexander S. Williams, USMC, "The San Diego Marine
Base," "Marine  Corps Gazette," v. XI, no. 2 (June 1926), p. 83.

(40)  "Ibid."

(41)  "The Story of San Diego," "Leatherneck," v. XV, no. 6
(June 1932), p.  10; untitled pamphlet published by Eleventh
Naval District Headquarters, San  Diego, California, of 15
September 1933, copy in Subject File "San Diego"  Historical
Branch, G-3 Division, Headquarters Marine Corps, p. 7.

(42)  "Williams, "op. cit., p. 83.

(43)  "Ibid.," pp. 84-85; "The Marine Corps Base at San Diego,"
"Leatherneck",  v. XII, no. 4 (April 1929), p. 53.

(44)  "San Diego Welcomes the Fourth Regiment Home,"
"Leatherneck", v. VII,  no. 38 (September 1924), p. 2; "CMC
Report," 1925, p. 1229.

(45)  "Ibid."

(46)  Williams, "op. cit.," p. 84.

(47)  Frank Hunt Rentfrow, "'You Will Find Us Always on the
Job,'"  "Leatherneck", v. XIV, no. 4 (April 1931), pp. 12-13, 49.

(48)  "CMC Report," 1927, p. 1193.

(49)  "The Story of San Diego," "Leatherneck", v. XV, no. 6
(June 1932), p.  10.

(50)  "CMC Report," 1929, p. 17.

                                      22



(51)  "Muster Rolls," 4th Marines, Dec41; BrigGen Samuel L.
Howard, USMC, ltr  to CMC, dtd 26Sep45, subj: "Report on the
Operation, Employment, and Supply of  the old 4th Marines from
September 1941, to the surrender of Corregidor, 6 May  1942,
made from memory and some notes," copy in Area File Folder
"Philippines,  A2-1," Historical Branch, G-3 Division,
Headquarters Marine Corps.

(52)  Jeter A. Isely and Philip A. Crowl, "The U. S. Marines and
Amphibious  War: Its Theory, and Its Practice in the Pacific"
(Princeton: Princeton  University Press, 1951), p. 19O.

(53)  "Ibid.," pp. 33-34.  Isely and Crowl erroneously give 8
December 1933 as  the date Navy Department General Order No. 241
was issued.

(54)  MajGen John H. Russell, USMC, memo dtd 30Jul35, subj:
"Transfer of the  Staff of the Fleet Marine Force to the West
Coast," in Subject File folder  "USMC: Fleet Marine Force
(Gen.); "Historical Outline of the Development of  Fleet Marine
Force, Pacific, 1941-1950 (Preliminary)," in Historical Branch, 
G-3 Division, Headquarters Marine Corps, p. 8.

(55)  "Ibid".; "CMC Report", 1935, p. 1.

(56)  Richard W. Johnston, "Follow Me! The Story of the Second
Marine Division  in World War II" (New York: Random House, ca.
1948), p. 7.

(57)  LtCol E. P. Moses, USMC, "Recruit Depot, Marine Corps
Base, San Diego,  California," "Leatherneck", v. XV, no. 6 (June
1932), p. 11.

(58)  "Ibid.," p. 12.

(59)  "Ibid.," p. 11.

(60)  1stSgt Robert W. Thompson, USMC, "San Diego's Sea School,"
 "Leatherneck", v. XXIII, no. 6 (June 1940), p. 9.

(61)  "Ibid."

(62)  "San Diego Base Expanded," "Marine Corps Gazette," v.
XXVII, no. 4  (August 1943), p 23.

(63)  2dLt Frederick Redway Jones, USMCR, "A Training Center
Chronicle," MS in  Subject File folder "San Diego - Camp
Elliott," Historical Branch, G-3  Division, Headquarters Marine
Corps, "passim"; "Camp Joseph H. Pendleton," in  Subject File
folder "San Diego," Historical Branch, G-3 Division,
Headquarters  Marine Corps, p. 2.

(64)  "Ibid.," pp. 2-3.

                                      23



  (65)  Jones, "op. cit.," pp. 1 and 7; Jack Pepper, "San Diego,
Rendezvous with  Destiny," "Leatherneck", v. XXVI, no. 1
(January 1943), p. 15.

(66)  "Ibid.," pp. 15, 17, and 68-70.

(67)  Sgt Lindley S. Allen, USMC, "Post of the Corps:  San
Diego,"  "Leatherneck", v. XXX, no. 5 (May 1949). p.6.

(68)  CG, Marine Corps Base, San Diego, ltr to CMC, dtd 21Mar47,
subj:   "Command Narrative period 1 September 1945 to 1 October
1946, Marine Corps  Base, San Diego, California." copy in
Historical Branch, G-3 Division,  Headquarters Marine Corps p. 7.

(70)  TSgt George Burlage, USMC, "MCRD, San Diego,"
"Leatherneck" v. XXXIV,  no. 1 (January 1951), pp. 37-38.

(71)  MSgt Clay Barrow, USMC, "San Diego Recruit Depot,"
"Leatherneck", v.  XLIV, no. 3 (March 1961), pp 17-25, 79.

                                      24

These items and much more can be found at The Marine Corps Research Center (MCRC)


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