A Brief History of the 3d Marines


                                      by



                                Benis M. Frank



                             First Printing:  1961
                             Reprinted:       1963
                             Revised:         1968


                        Historical Branch, G-3 Division

                        Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps

                            Washington, D. C. 20380

                                     1958


                               TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                           Original    On-Line
                                                             Page       Page

Preface                                                                    4

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE 3D MARINES                               1          5

Notes                                                          29         34

Appendixes:

  A   Commanding Officers, 3d Marines, 1911-1961               35         40
  B   3d Marines Medal of Honor Recipients                     39         44
  C   Honors of 3d Marines                                     40         45
  D   Operations in Which Units of 3d Marines 
       Have Participated                                       42         47


                            DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY
                    HEADQUARTERS UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS
                            WASHINGTON, D.C. 20380


                                    Preface

     "A Brief History of the 3d Marines" is a concise narrative of the 
activities of that regiment since it was initially formed 57 years ago.  
Official records and appropriate historical works were used in compiling this 
chronicle, which is published for the information of those interested in the 
history of those events in which the 3d Marines participated.



                                             R. G. OWENS, JR.
                                     Major General, U.S. Marine Corps
                                        Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3


Reviewed and approved:  24 October 1968

DISTRIBUTION:  DA


                       A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE 3D MARINES

                                      By

                                Benis M. Frank


     As was the case with many present-day Marine Corps combat units, the 3d 
Marines first came into existence during the period of international unrest in 
the early twentieth century. United States economic interests, the political 
instability of several Latin American countries, and adherence to the 
principles of the Monroe Doctrine were all motivating factors in the 
determination of American diplomatic policy in those times, and led to the 
assignment of Marine Corps units to duty in the Caribbean countries as 
guarantors of United States foreign policy.

     The 1st Provisional Brigade was organized in Philadelphia on 3 March 
1911, ostensibly for special temporary foreign shore service in Cuba.<1>  In 
reality, this unit was intended as a deterrent to Mexican rebel forces 
operating near the border of the United States.<2>  As part of the brigade, a 
3d Regiment was formed on 14 March 1911 by consolidating Marine detachments 
from the various ships of the Atlantic Fleet then at anchor within Guantanamo 
Bay, Cuba.<3>  The regimental commander was Lieutenant Colonel Ben H. Fuller, 
who later became the 15th Commandant of the Marine Corps (1930-1934).

     Until 17 June 1911, the 3d Regiment was stationed at Camp Meyer, Deer 
Point, Guantanamo Bay.  Companies E, F, and H reverted to their original 
assignments as ships' detachments on 10-11 June, while the rest of the 
regiment's letter companies did so on 17 June, at which time the 3d Regiment 
was disbanded.<4>

     The rupture of diplomatic relations between the United States and Mexico 
set the stage for the next appearance of a 3d Regiment.  Basic to this 
severance of relations was revolutionary disorder in Mexico resulting in the 
loss of American lives and the seizure of American property.<5>

     The immediate cause for the landing of Marines came on 9 April 1914, when 
the paymaster and crew of a whaleboat from


                                      1

USS DOLPHIN were arrested by Mexican authorities at Tampico. Although these 
men were shortly released with an oral apology by the Mexican commander, the 
commander of the American fleet, Admiral Mayo, issued an ultimatum requiring 
the Mexicans to apologize for and formally disavow the arrest, to promise that 
the officer responsible for the arrest would be punished, and to publicly 
hoist the American flag and render it a 21-gun salute.<6>

     The Mexican authorities refused to comply with the ultimatum unless 
Admiral Mayo returned a gun-for-gun salute to the Mexican flag, an impossible 
demand since the United States did not recognize the incumbent government of 
President Victoriano Huerta.  A stand-off resulted, ending with the seizure of 
Vera Cruz in order to cut off the supply of arms and munitions about to be 
landed by a German merchantman.  It was feared the munitions might be used by 
Huerta against the United States.<7>

     A provisional regiment, tentatively designated as the 3d, was formed on 
21 April 1914 from Marine detachments of the ships that had converged on Vera 
Cruz.  Assigned to support the activities of the 2d Marine Regiment already 
ashore, the 3d landed the same day it was formed.<8>  Commanded by Major 
Albertus W. Catlin, from USS ARKANSAS, the 3d Regiment policed the areas of 
Vera Cruz occupied by Marines during the period 20-30 April.<9>

     During the same period, another 3d Regiment was assembled at the 
Philadelphia Navy Yard on 22 April 1914, under the command of Colonel Franklin 
J. Moses.  It departed for Vera Cruz on board SS MORRO CASTLE the next 
day.<10>  The Major General Commandant stated, "When conditions in Mexico 
became grave, and action on the part of our government was contemplated, 
arrangements were made by these Headquarters for the mobilization of as many 
officers and men of the Corps as it was possible to detail."<11>

     With the arrival of Colonel Moses' 3d Regiment at Vera Cruz on 30 April, 
all Marine units, except Major Catlin's command, were placed under the 
operational control of United States Expeditionary Forces, United States 
Army.<12>  Major Catlin's 3d Regiment was disbanded the same date, with its 
personnel returning to their respective ships.<13>  During its stay in Mexico, 
Colonel Moses' command performed outpost and patrol duty and, at the same 
time, improved sanitary and living conditions within its sector.<14>


                                      2

     Unable to gain either United States recognition or support from other 
foreign powers, Huerta went into exile and was succeeded by one of his two 
primary opponents, Venustiano Carranza.  The latter appeared to be the lesser 
evil as far as President Wilson was concerned, and plans were made for the 
withdrawal of American forces from Mexico.  Pancho Villa, Huerta's other 
opponent, now began menacing the peace.  Villa operated in the north of Mexico 
threatening the border of the United States, but his activities did not affect 
the planned withdrawal of the Marines from Vera Cruz.<15>

     Colonel Moses died of pneumonia on 26 September, six days after being 
evacuated to the hospital ship, USS SOLACE.<16>  He was succeeded by Major 
John H. Russell, Jr., who later became the 16th Commandant of the Marine Corps 
(1934-1936).  The 3d Regiment left Vera Cruz on 23 November, arrived at the 
Philadelphia Navy Yard on 4 December, and was disbanded the following day.<17>

     The 3d Regiment next appeared on 20 December 1916, when the Field and 
Staff<18>, 1st Regiment was redesignated Field and Staff, 3d Provisional 
Regiment in Santo Domingo City, Dominican Republic.<19>  Marine Corps units 
were first sent to that country in 1915 when the outbreak of a revolution in 
the republic violated certain provisions of a treaty between the United States 
and the Dominican Republic.  As a result, the United States established a 
military government in the republic on 29 November 1916.<20>

     The provisional regiment was quickly enlarged to include nearly all of 
the Marines stationed in the small provincial towns and the larger cities of 
Azua, Barrahona, and Santo Domingo City, all in the southern part of the 
republic.  Marine duties in the early part of the occupation consisted of the 
administration of military government and the disarming of nearly half of the 
population.<21>

     The control of banditry was the most onerous of the Marines' duties as 
experiences in the Philippines and Haiti had proved earlier.  During the 
Dominican occupation period, the Marines became proficient constabulary 
leaders and skilled military government administrators.<22>

     Although few Marines considered their tour of duty in the Dominican 
Republic as important as participation in the war in Europe, jungle 
campaigning, with the ever-present threat of


                                      3

malaria, dengue, and tropical sores, was as fraught with physical hardship as 
was the European campaign.  Constant patrolling, most of it on foot, could 
only be conducted by small groups.  The bandits operated in many independent 
areas and Marine strength was seldom great enough to mount anything larger 
than a 15-man patrol commanded by a lieutenant or sergeant.  Since the enemy 
utilized time-honored guerrilla tactics and knew the area well, he was able to 
hit and run or slip away in the face of a larger punitive expedition.  As a 
result, Marines had to take the chance of baiting the enemy with small patrols 
in the hope of whipping him if he attacked.<23> Despite the risk involved, 
these baiting operations continued until the bandits were subdued and the 
country pacified.<24>

     Because the fundamental aim of the occupation was to bring peace to the 
country and enable the Dominicans to govern themselves, a native constabulary, 
the GUARDIA NACIONAL DOMINICANA, was formed on 1 May 1917.  Trained and 
officered in part by Marines of the 3d Provisional Regiment, the Guardia was 
gradually able to assume the duties of protecting life and property and 
suppressing banditry.<25>

     With the end of World War I, the Commandant of the Marine Corps 
recognized the efforts of those Marines who did not get to France when he 
wrote "I can not let the occasion pass without making mention of the 
thoroughly efficient manner in which officers and men stationed in Cuba, 
Haiti, and Santo Domingo have performed the duties assigned them."<26>  He 
then went on to acknowledge the fact that many Marines who served in the 
Caribbean had wanted to go to France and that a large percentage had enlisted 
for that reason, concluding, "though in an unconspicuous and unsung manner, 
they did their part in winning the war just as much as did those who were 
fortunate enough to go to France."<27>

     The Dominican Republic was divided into three military districts on 1 
July 1919; Northern, Eastern, and Southern. Bandit activity, now with 
political overtones, had increased in that year and it was decided to end it.  
The 3d Provisional Regiment was assigned responsibility for the Southern 
District, where the regimental commander was also the district commander. 
During this period, a military training center was organized in Santo Domingo 
City where both newly arrived Marines and old hands alike received standard 
Marine Corps training as well as special schooling in occupation duties.  
Increased banditry in


                                      4

the Eastern District was the object of an expedition in 1919, with units of 
the regiment assigned to assist the 15th Regiment in the venture.<28>

     The sharp postwar decrease in the size of the Marine Corps and the 
general lessening of tension in the Dominican Republic led to the gradual 
withdrawal of Marines from that country.  As a result, by 1920, the duties of 
those troops which remained had increased considerably.<29>  On 20 July 1920, 
the designation "Provisional" was dropped from the regiment's title.<30>      
Gradually, the GUARDIA, renamed POLICIA NATIONAL DOMINICANA, took over Marine 
duties.  In June 1922, in view of further strength reductions, the Commandant 
of the Marine Corps directed a reorganization of the 2d Provisional Brigade 
into two regiments, thereby forcing the rapid development and more intensive 
training of the Policia.<31>

     From the beginning of its operations in 1916, the brigade had a total of 
467 contacts with bandits, during which 1,137 of them were killed or wounded, 
while Marine casualties were 20 killed and 67 wounded.<32>  Bad feeling on the 
part of some Dominicans over Marine actions in the republic, as well as 
similar criticism from certain segments of the American press, citizens, and 
Congress, led to a United States Senate investigation during 1921-1922 from 
which the Marines emerged vindicated.<33>

     The 3d Regiment was disbanded at Santo Domingo City on 1 August 1922, 
when, along with the 15th Regiment, its remaining units became part of the 1st 
Regiment.<34>

     In his final report to the Secretary of the Navy, the brigade commander 
stated that "On November 29, 1916, military government by the United States 
was proclaimed.  The occupying force assumed control of a state rife with 
revolution, banditry, ungoverned and mismanaged.  We left a state enjoying 
peace, and with a loyal and well-developed military force, with fine roads, 
many schools, a fine military hospital, and, in short, with every promise for 
a future of stable government under Dominican rule."<35>

     While other Marine units served in Europe during World War I garnering 
acclaim and adding luster to previous exploits of the Corps, the 3d Regiment 
performed necessary but unpleasant duties in an uncomfortable area.  Such 
service helped


                                      5

the United States make a major effort in the European conflict by relieving 
Latin American pressures.  The experiences of these "Banana War" veterans 
provided the Marine Corps with basic doctrinal tenets which were to be of 
inestimable value in the future, while they also added to the existing fund of 
Marine Corps lore.


                               Between the Wars

     Under the provisions of an Act of Congress, approved 28 February 1925 and 
effective 1 July of that year, a Marine Corps Reserve was organized with the 
mission of providing a force of officers and enlisted men to serve as 
reinforcements for the regular Marine Corps when an emergency required.<36> 
Four reserve areas were established to parallel the four recruiting districts 
already in existence, with regiments being organized in each area.<37>  One of 
these was the 3d Regiment, activated 1 December 1925 in the Western Reserve 
Area at the Department of the Pacific in San Francisco.<38>

     At first, the regiment consisted of a regiment headquarters and 
headquarters company, a battalion headquarters and headquarters company, all 
stationed in San Francisco, and 10 companies situated in San Francisco, Los 
Angeles, Seattle, Spokane, Salt Lake City, and Denver.<39>  Soon, however, the 
outlying companies were disbanded and the 3d Regiment became no more than a 
paper organization.<40>  During the 3d's existence as a reserve unit, and 
until its disbandment in 1937, it appeared variously as "3d Regiment," "3d 
Reserve Marines," and "3d Reserve Regiment," even though a Marine Corps-wide 
redesignation of units occurred in 1930 which changed the title "___ Regiment" 
to "_____ Marines."

     In his final report upon retirement, Major General Russell concluded that 
the Fleet Marine Corps Reserve, with its elaborate brigade and regimental 
headquarters organizations, was beyond the economic means of the Marine Corps.  
As a result, these units were to be abolished by the end of 1934 and replaced 
by a reorganized reserve, formed on a battalion basis by May 1935.<41>  The 3d 
Regiment remained on the rolls until December 1937, however, when it was 
disbanded, and its personnel transferred to units in the 11th and 12th Reserve 
Districts.<42>


                                      6

                                 World War II

     Since the end of World War I, Marines had been deployed in the Caribbean, 
the Pacific, and the Far East, with Marine Corps policy consistently demanding 
a high state of training and preparedness.  Expansion of existing units and 
planning for the forming of new ones had begun prior to the entrance of the 
United States into World War II on 7 December 1941.  As part of this program, 
the 3d Marines, Reinforced, was activated at New River, North Carolina on 16 
June 1942.<43>  Admiral Ernest J. King, Chief of Naval Operations, ordered the 
regiment to American Samoa to serve with the Defense Force, Samoan Group as 
relief for the 8th Marines.<44>  This plan was implemented by the Commandant, 
who directed that the regiment be reinforced with certain tactical and service 
units.<45>

     Built around a cadre of officers and enlisted men remaining at New River 
after the 1st Marine Division had mounted out, the new regiment was quickly 
brought up to strength by a daily influx of recruits arriving directly from 
Parris Island. Because of its imminent departure from the United States, the 
months of July and August were used to organize, equip, and train the raw 
unit.  A sense of urgency in these activities was heightened by the fact that, 
with the landing of the 1st Marine Division on Guadalcanal, the greater 
portion of the Marine Corps' trained and combat-ready units in the Pacific had 
been committed.<46>

     The regiment's immediate overseas transfer would serve the dual purpose 
of increasing Marine strength in the Pacific and of giving the regiment an 
opportunity to conduct its training under realistic jungle conditions in 
Samoa.  Accordingly, the 3d Marines left New River for San Diego on 23 August.  
Loaded aboard the SS LURLINE, the regiment sailed for its first assignment in 
World War II on 1 September.<47>

     Upon arrival at Tutuila, American Samoa, on 14 September, the 3d Marines 
reported to the Commanding General, Defense Force, Samoan Group for garrison 
duty, serving as a unit of the 2d Marine Brigade.<48>  Existing conditions 
precluded a centralized bivouac and necessitated spreading the regiment over 
the entire island.  In turn, this required that training be carried out on an 
individual and small unit basis rather than on battalion or even company 
level.<49>  Additionally, the regiment was hampered in its training by the 
transfer of more than 1,000 officers and enlisted men to other organizations. 
<50>


                                      7

     In November, the 3d Marines was given the mission of defending Tutuila, 
the island on which it was based, and by February 1943, the regiment was 
united to permit combined training.  During the eight months it was on Samoa, 
the 3d experienced some of the most intensive jungle warfare training ever 
conducted by Marine Corps units.  Practice in mountain climbing was a 
particular innovation which was to pay off later in the Bougainville and Guam 
operations.<51>

     The 3d Marines was reorganized and incorporated as a unit of the 3d 
Marine Division on 1 March 1943, temporarily being detached to duty with the 
2d Marine Brigade.<52>  When the brigade was disbanded later that month, the 
regiment was reinforced and attached to the Samoan Defense Force.<53>  The 
unit was able to devote the entire month of April to intensive practice 
amphibious landings.  Each battalion made landings from the USS AMERICAN 
LEGION in the vicinity of Safata Bay, Upolu, British Samoa.<54>  Detached from 
the Samoan Defense Force during the last week of May, the regiment sailed from 
Pago harbor in five attack transports on the 23d to join the 3d Marine 
Division, then grouping in and about Auckland, New Zealand.<55>

     The 3d Marines enjoyed an advantage over the rest of the units of the 
division in that its men were acclimated to the tropics and had undergone more 
intensive combined training than most units had been able to conduct.  In the 
opinion of its commanding officer, its men, and the umpires and observers who 
had seen it in training on Samoa, the 3d was considered combat-ready in all 
respects.<56>

     While on Tutuila, the Marines of the 3d had been subject to continual 
rain, while facing a lack of modern conveniences and very little fresh food.  
A number of officers and men, how-ever, had contracted filiriasis or mu-mu, a 
mosquito-borne disease peculiar to Samoa and certain other Pacific islands, 
and one which was to make inroads on the regiment's strength.<57> The hope 
that a colder climate would reduce or eliminate the disease was not fulfilled, 
and extensive evacuation of personnel to the United States continued after the 
arrival of the regiment at Cambria Park, Papatoetoe, New Zealand in May.<58>

     Combat training continued here for the 3d Marines, where it found 
climate, terrain, and vegetation different from that on Samoa, with the one 
point of similarity being the continual and heavy rainfall.  At first, 
training consisted of small-unit


                                      8

tactics, but shortly progressing to battalion landing team and regimental 
combat team levels. Here, much valuable experience was gained, since the 
division was training together for the first time.<59>

     The division was first inspected as a whole in June 1943 by its 
commanding general, Major General Charles D. Barrett, who found it fit and 
combat ready.  The division then moved to Guadalcanal, a staging area prior to 
its commitment to combat. Assembling from their 22 camps scattered throughout 
New Zealand, the first echelons of the 3d Division began the move on 30 June. 
The 3d Marines, the division's rear echelon, did not leave until 25 August, 
rejoining the division at Coconut Grove Camp, Tetere Beach on arrival at 
Guadalcanal to begin advanced training.<60>


                                Bougainville<61>

     Designated Task Unit A-1, the now-reinforced 3d Marines was assigned the 
six southern landing beaches in the vicinity of Cape Torokina, Empress Augusta 
Bay for the Bougainville operation.  In preparation for the landing, the 
troops boarded four transports on 13 October, held rehearsals at Efate, New 
Hebrides from the 16th to the 20th, and then stood off Espiritu Santo to await 
the assembly of the rest of the invasion group constituting the Northern 
Landing Force.  By the 30th, various elements of the group were steaming 
towards the rendezvous point off Guadalcanal for the final run towards 
Bougainville. H-hour was set for 0730, 1 November 1943.

     Assault elements of 2/3 <62> were the first to hit the beaches, and at 
0730 a signal went up to indicate a successful landing.  The initial waves of 
the 2d and 3d Battalions reached the beaches with only light opposition from 
Japanese rifles and machine guns.  Heavy fire, however, was received by 1/3 
before its assigned beach was gained.  As that battalion's assault craft 
rounded the northernmost tip of Puruata Island, its troops were caught in a 
three-way cross-fire from Japanese emplacements on this island, Cape Torokina, 
and Torokina Island.  When the Marines were about 500 yards from the beach, an 
enemy 75mm mountain gun, previously silent, opened up from the northwest 
corner of the cape with telling effect.

     One of the first casualties was the 1st Battalion command boat, which was 
hit and sank, as did four other boats; 10 more


                                      9

were severely damaged.  Considerable confusion resulted as the rest of the 
assault wave boats attempted evasive tactics to avoid the fire.  In the end, 
1/3 landed in an order almost completely reversed from that planned.

     Bunker after bunker fell on Cape Torokina and control was quickly 
regained.  By evening, the battalion had occupied its initial beachhead line.  
The position containing the mountain gun was eliminated by Sergeant Robert A. 
Owens who, while directing the assault of his rifle team, crept up to the 
emplacement, killed some of the enemy occupants and drove out the rest before 
falling dead of wounds.  It was later discovered that he had sufficiently 
damaged the gun to prevent its further use, thereby undoubtedly saving 
additional Marine lives.  For this act, Sergeant Owens was posthumously 
awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

     On its beach, 3/3 received little opposition other than that offered by 
the terrain.  The beach in this sector was very steep, with jungle growing 
down to the water.  Additionally, rough surf, combined with the inexperience 
of the coxswains, resulted in the broaching of many landing craft.

     As the first patrols fanned out, it became evident that, except for two 
avenues of approach to Cape Torokina, the division was hemmed in by swamp and 
dense, rugged jungle.  Beyond a narrow strip of beach, varying from 10 to 40 
feet in width, the jungle terrain became swampy.  Footing was extremely 
difficult, with little or no trafficability for any type of vehicle but 
amphibian tractors, which soon became the division's workhorses.

     Expansion of the beachhead began at daybreak on the second day when 2/3 
and 3/3, with 3/3 on the left, began to move through the swamps; 1/3 was 
assigned as reserve for the 9th Marines on the division left flank.  
Additionally, as it advanced, 3/3 was to locate a route for a supply road from 
the beach to the Numa Numa Trail.  Extension of the beachhead continued, so 
that by 5 November, it had been pushed 5,000 yards inland and broadened to 
about 10,000 yards along the beach.

     The first major reaction from the enemy came early on 7 November when 
Japanese troops landed from destroyers in the Laruma River area and attacked 
Marine positions deployed on the division left flank.  At this time, 1/3 was 
moving into its assigned reserve area, but it was quickly thrown into the


                                      10

fray instead.  As the battalion passed through 3/9's lines and attacked, heavy 
close-in fighting ensued during which a second Medal of Honor was won 
posthumously by a Marine of the 3d Regiment.  Advancing through thick jungle 
undergrowth, Sergeant Herbert J. Thomas' squad was hit by enemy machine gun 
fire. Thomas, intending to knock out the Japanese with a hand grenade, 
positioned his men to charge after the grenade had exploded. He hurled the 
grenade, but it caught in some vines and fell back amongst the Marines.  
Thomas threw himself upon it to smother the explosion with his body and died a 
few seconds later.

     By nightfall of 7 November, the enemy attack was blunted. A Marine 
assault on the following day advanced the left flank of the perimeter 1,500 
yards.  This was followed by an air attack on the 9th, after which all enemy 
activity to the west ceased.  Control of the sector was passed to the 148th 
Infantry of the U. S. Army 37th Division, and 1/3 returned to a reserve role 
in its regiment's sector.

     On the 16th, the 3d Battalion broke out of the jungle and connected the 
road it had constructed with the Numa Numa Trail, thereby assuring continued 
supply support of the front lines from the beach.  Patrols on 17-18 November 
were aggressively opposed by the Japanese.  A sketch of positions found on the 
body of an enemy officer killed in ambush by a 3/3 patrol indicated that 
strong defenses were being prepared on the Numa Numa and East-West Trails.  
The 3d Battalion was ordered to attack these positions on the morning of the 
19th.

     Supported by light tanks, the battalion moved out, and bypassing the Numa 
Numa Trail roadblock, hit the enemy on his flank.  By 21 November, 1/3 and 3/3 
occupied critical terrain in the Piva Forks area, thereby cutting Japanese 
supply and communications lines.  Now released from the Army control it had 
been under since 8 November, the 2d Battalion advanced east under fire to 
attack the strongly defended enemy outpost on the East-West Trail.  After 
reducing the Japanese position, 2/3 continued on across the east branch of the 
Piva River to seize Cibik Ridge, named in honor of the 2/3 platoon leader 
whose unit took the ground.  This hill mass permitted observation of the 
entire Empress Augusta Bay area and dominated both the East-West Trail and the 
Piva Forks region.

     While Cibik's platoon on the ridge was being reinforced at the same time 
it was resisting enemy attempts to regain the position, the rest of 2/3 
discovered the enemy east of the Piva


                                      11

River organized in considerable strength.  The battalion commander decided to 
disengage and pull back through the line built up by the 1st Battalion.  After 
a difficult withdrawal, 2/3 moved to a reassembly area.  The Japanese 
attempted a double envelopment of 1st Battalion lines, necessitating immediate 
recommitment of 2/3.  Fortunately for the Marines, the Japanese followed 
obvious approach routes and were wiped out by well-emplaced machine guns sited 
for just such an eventuality.

     Artillery was the keystone of the attack on 24 November, when seven 
battalions, four from the 12th Marines and three from the 37th Infantry 
Division, fired some 5,600 rounds of 75mm and 105mm high explosive shells into 
an area 800 yards square within 20 minutes.  The Japanese retaliated with 
heavy artillery fire which caused some of the heaviest casualties sustained by 
the 3d Marines to that date.  Except for limited Japanese patrol activity, 
most of the enemy were driven east of the Torokina River at the successful 
conclusion of this Marine attack.

     The action which raged in this area until 25 November was known as the 
Battle of Piva Forks.  Some of the most vicious close combat yet experienced 
in the Pacific occurred here.  This battle marked the temporary decline of 
serious Japanese opposition to the Marine occupation and development of the 
Empress Augusta Bay beachhead.

     In recognition of battle casualties, sickness, and utter exhaustion 
suffered by their men, the rifle battalions of the 3d were allowed to rest and 
reorganize.  The regiment, whose troops had been committed for 27 consecutive 
days, exchanged sectors with the 9th Marines on 26 November.  A composite 
battalion from the 3d Marines Weapons Company, Scout Company, several 
headquarters companies, and available service troops was organized and 
assigned a position in the lines which it occupied from 28 November until 3 
December.  With the exception of the Scout Company which remained on line, the 
various units of the 3d then returned to normal duties.  From 28 November 
until 22 December, the 3d Marines occupied the extreme southern flank of the 
division line where its patrols had several sharp skirmishes with the 
Japanese.  The regiment was relieved on the line 21-22 December, reverting to 
I Marine Amphibious Corps (IMAC) reserve.  On Christmas Day, the 3d returned 
to 3d Marine Division control and embarked for Guadalcanal.

     Later estimates indicated that not less than 1,696 of the


                                      12

enemy had been killed by the 3d Marines, while the regiment suffered 98 killed 
in action, 17 missing and later presumed dead, and 383 wounded.  In addition, 
417 of the 1,331 non-battle casualties were caused by filariasis.  It was 
later discovered that some of the combat fatigue patients were actually 
debilitated by that disease.  In a period of 52 days, Marines of the 3d faced 
and defeated three formidable obstacles:  Japanese forces, deep swamp, and 
dense jungle.  Back on Guadalcanal, they soon began preparations for their 
next combat action, Guam.


                                   GUAM <63>

     The 3d Marine Division, as part of I Marine Amphibious Corps, was to 
invade Kavieng in the Bismarck Archipelago in April 1944, so the 3d Marines 
began intensive training in jungle fighting, tank-infantry tactics, assault on 
fortified positions, and street fighting.  During these preinvasion 
preparations, the newly reconstituted 4th Marines seized Emirau without 
opposition on 20 March.  Capture of the airfield here was the last in a series 
of steps taken to encircle and isolate Rabaul, which thereby cancelled the 
need for the Kavieng landing. Revised strategic planning called for the 
assault and capture of Japanese holdings in the Marianas.

     As part of the overall strategy, and in coordination with Marine landings 
on Saipan and Tinian, the 3d Marines was to take part in the recapture of 
Guam, lost to the Japanese on 10 December 1941.  Final invasion rehearsals 
were held on the beaches of Cape Esperance, Guadalcanal, during the latter 
part of May 1944.  The Marines then headed for Kwajalein where the assault 
troops shifted from APAs to LSTs containing the amphibian tractors in which 
they would actually launch the assault.

     The Guam task force, initially designated as a floating reserve for the 
forces attacking Saipan-Tinian, sailed for that area on 12 June.  Originally, 
the Guam landing was planned for 18 June or three days after the Saipan 
invasion.  This date was first postponed and then cancelled, and the major 
elements of the task force returned to Eniwetok.  By this time, the regiment 
had spent some 20 days afloat and was to have only a brief respite ashore 
before it re-embarked for the 21 July assault on Guam.

     Beaches assigned to the 3d Marine Division lay between two points of land 
which jutted into the ocean.  The 3d Marines


                                      13



                                

                            
3D Marines in Guam, 21 July - 10 Aug 1944 14 landed on the left, their mission to secure Chonito Cliff, Adelup Point, and the commanding terrain extending to the right of the cliff area. Landing at 0833, the 1st and 3d Battalions received intense mortar and artillery fire. By noon, 3/3 had cleared Chonito Cliff, but 1/3, so badly mauled initially on Bougainville, again sustained heavy casualties in its assault of Bundschu Ridge, named prior to the landing for Captain Geary A. Bundschu, Company A commander. Captain Bundschu's company was assigned the taking of the ridge, where he later lost his life. Enemy mortar fire created more casualties on 3/3's beach in one day than were experienced by the whole division on Bougainville. As the first day wore on, the 3d Marines met stiffer opposition over increasingly difficult terrain. Both factors slowed the regiment's progress which, in turn, retarded the advance of the rest of the division. The only battalion to overcome its opposition on D-day, or W-day as it was called for this invasion, was 3/3 which pushed to Adelup Point on the left, supported in the advance by tanks and amphibian tractors. The 2d Battalion reached high ground in its zone, but failed to gain its initial objective the first day. On the right, 1/3 twice attempted to seize a spur projecting between the regiment's two landing beaches, but failed each time. This key feature was finally taken by 2/3 on 23 July, and the regiment was now able to advance. The combined total of regimental casualties to that date, 615 killed, wounded and missing, attest to the heavy fighting which confronted the 3d Marines. It was during these first hectic and murderous days that two men of the regiment fought in a manner which merited their being awarded Medals of Honor. During the first night ashore, 21-22 July, Private First Class Luther Skaggs, a 3/3 mortar section squad leader, assumed command when his section leader became a casualty. Skaggs led the section forward under heavy fire and positioned it in order that it might deliver effective fire on the Chonito Cliffs. After a grenade shattered the lower part of one leg, he quickly improvised a tourniquet for it, and remained in his position for eight hours while continuing to direct the fight to annihilate the enemy. For the inspiration he gave to his men, courageous leadership, and heroic example, he was given his nation's highest award. In the second case, Private Leonard F. Mason, an automatic rifleman with 2/3, was advancing along a narrow gully with his platoon, when it was held up by the fire of two Japanese machine 15 guns. On his own initiative, Mason climbed out of the gully, moved along parallel to it and towards the rear of the Japanese positions and cleared them out despite receiving repeated wounds from rifle and machine gun fire. He killed five of the enemy and wounded another before rejoining his platoon to report the results of his action. Mason then permitted himself to be evacuated, but he later succumbed to his wounds. On 25 July, the badly mauled 1st Battalion, 3d Marines reverted to division reserve when 2/9 was attached to the 3d Marines to pass through the lines and continue the drive. The attack progressed favorably all along the front as all three battalions, supported by tanks, artillery, and mortars, pushed ahead to the high ground overlooking the Mt. Tenjo road. Numerous caves, well-defended by the enemy, had to be blown out as 2/9 met the bulk of the Japanese resistance and suffered heavy casualties. During the night of 25-26 July, after an exhaustive artillery and mortar preparation, the enemy began to counterattack all along the Marine line. The Japanese were driven back with heavy losses, but small groups infiltrated the lines only to be systematically mopped up on the morning of the 26th. Although it was not known at the time, the backbone of Japanese resistance on Guam had been broken. At this point, intelligence sources indicated that the Japanese were disposed along the Fonte-Chachao-Tenjo ridge line barring the approach to Agana, capital of Guam, and the northern-most reaches of the island. Accordingly, an attack was begun on these positions on 27 July. The Agana tableland was reached 30 July, and preparations were made for a drive to the north which entailed the capture of the city. Agana was seized without opposition on the 31st, but the road outlets from the capital were heavily mined and casualties were numerous. That night, 31 July - 1 August, assault troops of the 3d Marines set up perimeter defenses north of the city. Terrain of another sort was now faced as the regiment advanced northward through swamps and extremely dense jungle, which made keeping contact with adjacent units difficult. By 7 August, 3d Marine casualties were 171 dead, 761 wounded, and 26 missing. The Marines had buried 1,872 of the enemy. The most serious hindrance to a speedy advance was the 16 mining of the roads by the Japanese. Instead of the stubborn fighting that had been expected by the Marines, the enemy offered only minor resistance including considerable artillery harassment. The northern beaches were reached by 1800, 10 August, the date on which the corps commander announced that all organized resistance on Guam had ended. This did not mean that all of the enemy had given up, for aggressive patrolling and mopping-up continued during the rest of August and September. This proved to be excellent on-the-job combat training in small-unit operations for the newly arriving replacements. A few Japanese, who were reluctant to surrender, continually harassed Marine patrols and the natives as they raided villages and supply dumps in search of food. Attempts were made in suspected areas to gain the enemy soldiers' surrender through psychological warfare leaflet drops and loud speaker broadcasts. The island commander then directed a complete sweep of northern Guam, beginning on 24 October, in which all remaining Japanese forces were to be sought out, captured, or destroyed. By the end of the month, 617 additional Japanese had been killed and 85 had been captured. The 3d Marines returned to its bivouac area to prepare for the next operation. It was necessary, too, to continue daily patrolling as scatterings of Japanese still roamed the jungles. Iwo Jima<64> On 5 November 1944, the 3d Marines, constituted as Regimental Combat Team 3, was designated floating reserve for the Iwo Jima operation. From that date until the actual boarding of ships on 16 February 1945, an intensive training program went on, emphasizing the training of old hands as well as new replacements. Many hours were devoted to individual and small-unit training, reduction of fortified positions, combined tank-infantry and artillery-infantry tactics, and, since the regiment was to be in reserve, passage of lines. Training and rehearsal for the invasion was carried out on Guam with the intensity of training being such that one battalion commander recommended later that no 20-mile hike be again ordered for any unit prior to its embarkation for combat. He stated that approximately 20 percent of his command was incapacitated with 17 foot ailments and the aftereffects of heat prostration when it boarded ship. The 3d Marines, prepared to land on order, arrived off the island of Iwo Jima on 27 February. Only reinforcing elements, such as teams from the 3d Joint Assault Signal Company and replacement draft personnel, were detached and landed. Regimental medical officers teamed with ships' doctors to treat an estimated 250-450 casualties from the units ashore. The bulk of Combat Team 3 remained on the transports off Iwo Jima until 5 March, when it returned to Guam, landing on the 8th. Morale of the battle-tested 3d Marines was excellent, and, undoubtedly, there was great disappointment at not having participated in the victory ashore. Both Major General Harry Schmidt, commander of V Amphibious Corps, and Major General Graves B. Erskine, 3d Marine Division commander, had requested the release and commitment of the regiment as early as 28 February. The Commanding General, Expeditionary Troops, Lieutenant General Holland M. Smith, felt, however, that Iwo could be captured with the troops already ashore and that another regiment would only further aggravate the already crowded beach-head conditions. Joined by the rest of the 3d Division returning from Iwo Jima, the 3d Marines spent some time in housekeeping details before beginning combat preparations once again. Men who had completed nearly 27 months overseas or had participated in three campaigns were returned to the United States, while new replacements were phased into the various units of the 3d Division. The stay of the new men with the division was short-lived, however, as the 1st and 6th Marine Divisions on Okinawa had greater need for their services. Guam was still far from being a peaceful tropic paradise as numerous Japanese were still roaming about the island. In April 1945, the 3d Marines, supported by artillery, began an eight-day sweep of the southern portion of the island, which resulted in 14 enemy dead and several captured. Of interest is the fact that some 500 Japanese were able to evade capture and did not surrender until well after peace was announced. As training efforts intensified, old equipment was refurbished and new was issued. Certain aspects of the training indicated that the impending operation was to be on a large scale and in wide-open terrain. The 3d awaited orders as news was 18 received of air raids on the Japanese home islands and of the success of the Okinawa campaign. Miyako Jima, in the Sakashima Gunto, southwest of Okinawa, was expected to be the landing area, but that operation was cancelled and the men of the regiment were given a five-day rest before another round of training began. New orders were received directing an assault on the Japanese homeland itself. By 10 August, however, Japanese capitulation was a virtual certainty, and the division stood ready for possible orders to occupation duty. In addition to schooling for this type of assignment, a division-wide recreation program was inaugurated to keep morale high, for the troops had been on Guam since the previous year. The 1st Battalion, 3d Marines arrived on Chichi Jima in the Bonin Islands on 10 October to receive the surrender of the Japanese forces on the island and to destroy their extensive defenses. The 3d Battalion was not through with the former enemy, either, for on 10 December it began a five-day sweep of Guam. Immediately after the Japanese surrender ceremonies in Tokyo Bay, plans were made to send combat veterans home and the remaining troops to China. The 3d Marines headquarters sailed from Guam on 1 December, arriving in San Diego on the 15th. This group debarked and went to Camp Pendleton to become part of the Marine Training and Replacement Command. After participating in some of the heaviest fighting in the Pacific, the 3d Marines was disbanded on 13 January 1946. The 3d Marines in North China<65> Following the end of hostilities in the Pacific, American units were directed to "assist the Chinese Nationalist Government in occupying key areas (of China) in receiving the enemy surrender and repatriating Japanese troops, and in liberating and rehabilitating Allied internees and prisoners of war." <66> Accordingly, Marine divisions of III Marine Amphibious Corps began landing in North China on 30 September 1945. A combination of the rapid Marine Corps troop demobilization, which decreased the strength and combat efficiency of Marine units in China, and the worsening state of affairs between the Chinese Nationalists and Communists required the 19 reorganization of Marine elements in that area. One of the steps taken was the activation of a new organization at Tsingtao in May 1947, Fleet Marine Force, Western Pacific (FMFWesPac), which was to be part of the overall Marine command in China. In addition to the continual mission of furnishing security for the American naval installations in Tsingtao, the situation required Marines to provide emergency protection for American lives and property in Tientsin, Nanking, and Shanghai. As part of the tightening-up and reorganization of FMFWesPac, the 3d Battalion, 4th Marines was redesignated 3d Marines on 1 October 1947.<67> This new 3d Marines, comprising a reinforced BLT, continued the amphibious training program of the 4th Marines. A full-scale amphibious landing exercise, with simulated naval gunfire and air support, was conducted in the Tsingtao Bay area at the end of October. United States involvement in China, during the period 1946-1948, was marked by constant harassment of Marines by the Chinese Communists during the latter's rapid and successful advance against Chinese Nationalist forces. The Department of State felt that the situation had so deteriorated, in midsummer 1948, it recommended the evacuation of both American military personnel and civilians. By December, most United States nationals and military dependents had left China. Approximately 2,500 Americans remained in Shanghai, which was to become the center of future evacuation proceedings. In early December 1948, the 9th Marines arrived in Tsingtao and then moved on to Shanghai on the 16th of the month to assist in the evacuation of civilians. In Tsingtao, by 3 February, all elements of the 3d Marines, with the exception of Company C assigned to shore patrol duties, were aboard ship. Company B of the regiment was transferred to the 1st Marines to sail for the United States on 8 February with the major portion of FMFWesPac command group. By mid-March, with the fall of Tsingtao imminent, there was no further need for the presence of the 3d Marines in the city, and on 17 March, the regiment sailed for Shanghai to relieve the 9th Marines, leaving only its shore patrol company in Tsingtao. Before the 9th Marines left Shanghai on 30 March, it transferred its Company C to the 3d Marines which redesignated it Company B. Their Shanghai task completed, the 3d Marines returned to Tsingtao on 29 April. With the exception of Company C which remained in its Tsingtao shore patrol assignment, 20 the 3d sailed for the United States on 6 May 1949.<68> Company C, which had boarded cruisers on 3 May, continued its shore patrol assignment in Tsingtao until relieved by Company C, 7th Marines on 14 May. Two days later, it sailed for the United States to rejoin its parent unit. The 3d Marines was stationed at Camp Pendleton and maintained that designation until redesignated Headquarters and Service Company, 5th Marines on 1 October 1949.<69> Regenesis of the 3d Marines<70> The invasion of South Korea in 1950 fulfilled the portents of the 1946-1948 Chinese Communist victories on the Chinese mainland. Marine readiness was exemplary and units were quickly deployed to Korea. As part of the Marine Corps-wide expansion, a 3d Marine Brigade was formed at Camp Pendleton in 1951 and, on 20 June, the 3d Marines was activated as part of the brigade.<71> During July and August, the three infantry battalions of the regiment were formed. Training was begun immediately despite the fact that the regiment supplied cadres for other units of the brigade. In January 1952, the brigade became the 3d Marine Division, FMF.<72> By February, the 3d Marines was near full strength and prepared for its first major maneuver, LEX BAKER-1, a training exercise which began at Camp Pendleton and ended with an amphibious landing at Aliso Beach.<73> During the course of 1952, the regiment conducted several major exercises, and an amphibious landing demonstration at Seattle's Lake Washington during that city's centennial "Seafair" celebration in August.<74> Another facet of Marine Corps expansion was the formation of the 1st Provisional Marine Air-Ground Task Force at the Marine Corps Air Station, Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. In January 1953, the 3d Battalion, 3d Marines went to Hawaii as the infantry unit for the new force, while the other two battalions of the 3d prepared for AIRLEX II in the Mojave Desert. Finally, the regiment was again together when all three infantry battalions were united at Kaneohe on 10 July. The 3d Division went to Japan from Camp Pendleton in August, and was joined later that month by the 3d Marines which set up quarters at Camp Fuji-McNair in the area of Mount Fujiyama. 21 During the period of its stay in Japan, the regiment conducted many field and landing exercises.<75> Operation FLAGHOIST, for example, held in March 1954, consisted of a division landing on Iwo Jima. During the Suez crisis in late 1956, BLT 3/3 was alerted for possible employment in the Suez Canal area, but it only cruised in the Southeast Asian waters, "showing the flag" in Borneo's Brunei Bay, Bombay, Karachi, and Singapore, and then returned to Japan. Prelude to Vietnam<76> The 3d Marines remained in Japan until 16 March 1957, then displaced to Camp Sukiran on Okinawa, arriving five days later. During the 1950s, whenever American lives and properties were threatened because of political upheavals in the various countries of the Far East, units of the 3d Marines were alerted and sometimes deployed to critical areas. For approximately a month, December 1957-January 1958, the regiment served as an afloat landing force on board ships steaming in the vicinity of Indonesia, while that country was in the throes of civil strife. Later in 1958, during the Lebanese crisis, BLT 3/3 was slated for deployment to the Middle East. The transports carrying the reinforced battalion reached the Indian Ocean before being ordered back to Okinawa. When Laos was threatened in 1960, elements of the regiment were deployed with the Seventh Fleet from August to November. This was just the first in a series of crisis actions during this decade leading to American involvement in Vietnam. As the Far East situation worsened, the 3d Marines, together with other 3d Marine Division and FMFPac air and ground organizations, conducted a continuing round of training and maneuvers to maintain a combat-ready stance. In the period 1960-1965, assignment as the Special Landing Force (SLF) of the Seventh Fleet was rotated amongst the infantry battalions and supporting units of the division. During this time also, joint training operations/landings were held with other military forces of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. In the fall of 1963, when the Cuban Missile Crisis threatened the security of the free world, 2/3 deployed with the 5th Marine Expeditionary Brigade (MEB) through the Panama Canal and trained at Vieques, Puerto Rico, until relieved and returned to Okinawa. Beginning 3 March 1964, the 3d Marines participated in the joint 3d Marine Division Republic of China Marine Corps Exercise BACKPACK on Taiwan. This was the last major exercise the regiment, as a whole, took 22 part in before its deployment to Vietnam. Following the assignment of Marine helicopter squadrons to Vietnam in a support capacity, a requirement arose for the subsequent assignment of infantry units as a security force for the choppers and their personnel. One of the units so deployed was D/1/3, which arrived in Vietnam in March 1964. Vietnam Operations<77> The Gulf of Tonkin Crisis of August 1964 may be said to have led almost directly to the large-scale assignment of Marine Corps units to Vietnam. This event was a major factor in effectuating certain American contingency plans, one of which activated the 9th Marine Expeditionary Brigade (MEB) and resulted in the alert of two battalions of The 3d MEB, 3/3 and 1/9. For planning purposes, the ground component of the 9th MEB consisted of BLTs 1/3 and 3/9, and the Seventh Fleet SLF, BLT 2/3 and HMM-364. As the immediacy of the Gulf of Tonkin Crisis lessened, a stand-down was ordered for the units slated for the Vietnam landing. Contingency planning did not end there, however, for the everchanging situation in Vietnam itself required constant revision of the plans already prepared. Stepped-up Vietcong terror tactics employed against American military installations in January-February 1965 provided the rationale for implementation of these contingency plans and, together with other units, the 9th MEB was deployed to Vietnam as a result. Initial elements of the brigade landed at Da Nang on 8 March 1965. (See map.) The first infantry increment of 9th MEB to arrive at Da Nang was BLT 3/9, which made an administrative landing at 0903. At 1305, lead elements of 1/3 arrived by plane from Okinawa; D/1/3, the security company, met and rejoined the battalion at the airfield. In the beginning, the 9th MEB mission was strictly defensive in nature, and directly related to the security of the Da Nang Airbase. The Marine Tactical Area of Responsibility (TAOR), comprised an unpopulated area of approximately eight square miles which included the airfield and high ground to the west. The mission of 1/3 was to defend the airfield against infiltration and all other enemy attacks, expected to be mounted in anything from squad to battalion level. On 8 April 1965, 1/3 relieved 3/9, which had occupied forward defense positions in the TAOR. 23 An element of 3d MEB, BLT 2/3 had been conducting maneuvers during initial Marine landings in Vietnam, and before its commitment there. Upon receipt of orders, it embarked in the ships of a Navy task group on 4 April, and then steamed to a point 50 miles off Da Nang, where it was to remain until directed to land. Meanwhile, the rest of 3d MEB, consisting of 3/4, RLT-3 headquarters, and elements of the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, similarly boarded shipping which then joined the ships carrying 2/3; the brigade then awaited further orders. Several days later these arrived, and BLT 2/3 landed in Vietnam on 10-11 April in what was described as a smooth, professional movement. The 3d Marines commander, Colonel Edwin B. Wheeler, arrived in country on the 7th, the date on which the rest of his headquarters was boarding amphibious shipping at Okinawa. On 13 April, RLT-3 came under the operational control of 9th MEB, and a week later it was redesignated 3d Marines (-) (Reinforced), in what was primarily an administrative reorganization for the purpose of setting up a task groupment. Before discussing the deployment of 3/3 to the Republic of Vietnam (RVN), a few observations are in order concerning the structuring of Marine task organization in the Vietnam war. What happened is a constant source of confusion and amazement to the individual familiar with the Marine task organization in World War II and the Korean War. Then, each regiment maintained its own identity within the division to which it belonged, i. e., the 3d Marines was an infantry regiment in the 3d Marine Division. With but few exceptions, all organic units of the regiment remained under the administrative and operational control of the parent unit. Because Vietnam became primarily a battalion or, even more so, a company and platoon leader's war, one or more battalions or companies of one infantry regiment were often found fighting under the operational control of another regiment. Or, conversely, it often happened that, for a period of time, an infantry regiment had operational control of a number of units, none of which were its own, and which could enlarge the regiment to brigade-size. For example, during one point in the fighting on 24 April-13 May 1967 near Khe Sanh for Hills 861, 881 North, and 881 South, the 3d Marines (Reinforced) had operational control over 2/3, 3/3, 1/9, 2/9 (-), 3/9 (-), and 1/26 (-), representing a total of 15 infantry companies from 6 different battalions. It also had the support of four artillery firing batteries, one of which was from an Army battalion. True, the nature of the terrain and course of this fighting dictated this particular task organization, but this example was not the exception, for it happened very often amongst Marine 24 units in Vietnam. In view of the above, one can more readily accept the fact that 3/3 landed at Chu Lai on 12 May 1965 under the operational control of the 4th Marines, and never did return to parent control until 30 October 1966. Upon setting up and occupying positions from the north to the south-central sector of the Da Nang perimeter, the 3d Marines' mission was to eliminate the Viet Cong from within the assigned TAOR, and, in doing so, help restore the faith and confidence of the South Vietnamese population in its legally established government. The TAOR originally assigned to the 9th MEB comprised approximately eight square miles; before the 3d Marines left Da Nang in October 1966, the regimental TAOR had been expanded until it comprised 252 square miles, accounting for more than one-third of the 675 square miles in the Da Nang enclave. The regimental front extended a distance of 32 road miles from Hai Van Pass in the north to Dai Loc in the south. Besides control of operations in its own TAOR, the regiment additionally had control of the Da Nang Airfield Defense Battalion (12 April-22 July 1965) and the battalion responsible for defending the Hue-Phu Bai enclave (12 April 1965-3 March 1966). During the 3d Marines stay in Da Nang, the successive regimental commanders at one time or another exercised operational and/or administrative control over a number of different infantry battalions from other Marine regiments, an Army airborne battalion, as well as their own organic units. At the same time that it was deeply committed in a combat situation, the 3d Marines became equally involved in the conduct of a civic action program, which contributed greatly to the pacification effort in its area.<78> Very often the battalions of the 3d Marines were assigned individual missions, or missions under control of other regiments, when they were not under operational control of the parent regiment. As evidence of this, Appendix D provides a list of operations in which these battalions were involved from the date of their arrival in country to February 1968. In October 1966, the 3d Marines headquarters deployed to the Operation PRAIRIE area, immediately south of the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). The first regimental element to depart Da Nang was Command Group Alpha, which on 9 October began an air and surface movement north to a position on "Artillery Plateau," 12 miles west of Dong Ha in the new regimental TAOR. On 17 October, this position was designated Camp Carroll, in honor of the late 25 Captain Joseph J. Carroll, who had been killed in action a short time earlier while leading Company K, 3d Battalion, 4th Marines, in an assault on Hill 484, five miles northwest of the plateau. The official dedication of the camp took place on 10 November 1966, the 191st Birthday of the Marine Corps. Regimental Command Group Bravo, which had remained in Da Nang during the initial stages of the deployment, completed its displacement northward on 14 October, and on the 17th, the regimental commander took over responsibility for operational control of the battalions deployed in the TAOR. Additionally, he became camp commander of the supporting arms complex located on the plateau. The mission of the 3d Marines in the PRAIRIE area was to conduct reconnaissance in force operations to detect, attack, and destroy enemy forces and to ensure the security of supporting units and installations within the assigned TAOR. This area of operations, encompassing 79 square miles, includes major North Vietnamese Army infiltration routes and such noteworthy terrain features as the "Rockpile," Hill 400, and Hill 484. The Operation PRAIRIE area extended from a line two miles south of the DMZ to the Ba Long Valley. Here, for the period the regiment remained in this area, the successive commanders of the 3d Marines have been responsible for beating back continuous enemy attacks and infiltration attempts to the south. As noted earlier, the infantry battalions of the 3d Marines arrived in Vietnam on varying dates in 1965 and were not necessarily placed under operational control of the parent regiment for some time. The following chronology, when read in conjunction with the operations listed in Appendix D, will indicate how the battalions have been employed and to what degree they were committed in Vietnam. The comment, "Rotated to Okinawa," following certain dates means that a battalion was withdrawn from combat and sent to the Ryukyus for a short period of rest, rehabilitation, and training. 1st Battalion 8Mar-31Aug65 Operations in Vietnam 1Sep-17Nov65 Rotated to Okinawa 18Nov65-12Feb67 Operations in Vietnam 13Feb-3Apr67 Rotated to Okinawa 4Apr67-2Jan68 SLF 3Jan68- Operations in Vietnam 26 2d Battalion 10Apr-17Nov65 Operations in Vietnam 18Nov-21Dec65 Rotated to Okinawa 22Dec65-26Feb66 SLF 27Feb66-8Mar67 Operations in Vietnam 9Mar-13Apr67 Rotated to Okinawa 14Apr-30Nov67 SLF 1Dec67- Operations in Vietnam 3d Battalion 12May65-30Aug66 Operations in Vietnam 1Sep-26Oct66 Rotated to Okinawa 27Oct66- Operations in Vietnam Vietnam Innovations Originally formed by the 3d Marines in the Da Nang TAOR in December 1965, Combined Action Companies provided a means by which the regiment could pacify semi-cleared areas without committing an excessive number of combat units. Primarily, this program was based on the introduction of Marine volunteers who lived in Vietnamese hamlets and worked with Vietnamese Popular Forces under the operational control of the Marine commander in the area. The combined action program has proved successful in almost every area in which it was established, and is closely allied with the civic action program also instituted by Marine units. Initially, in the Da Nang area, the regimental headquarters company began a civic action program in the Khanh Son hamlet, where the Marines provided food, medical assistance, animal husbandry supervision, improvements and direction in local construction, and the teaching of English to some 557 natives. During its early days in Vietnam, the 1st Battalion administered to the needs of approximately 10,000 people living in 15 separate hamlets. A major civic action project undertaken by 1/3 was assistance given to a children's hospital located in its own command post area. Similarly, the other battalions became as deeply involved with their own civic action programs as they were with combat operations. As the regiment and its battalions were deployed elsewhere in Vietnam, they began programs of local rehabilitation and civic action almost immediately. The dividends in terms of local pacification and cooperation with the 27 Vietnamese were readily apparent. The continuing war to win the hearts and minds of the people has been as successful and as important as the 3d Marines combat record. Conclusion The 3d Marines has made Marine Corps history during its participation in actions ranging from the "Banana Wars" to the amphibious operations in World War II, and now in Vietnam. Throughout its existence the regiment's officers and enlisted Marines have performed their duties in a manner which has brought honor to the 3d Marines, to the Marine Corps, and to our nation. In its present status as a highly professional and combat-tried organization, the 3d Marines continues the successes of its past performances. 28 NOTES <1> CMC, Annual Report....in "Annual Reports of the Navy Department for Fiscal Year" 1911 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1912), p. 530, hereafter "CMC Rpt" with year. <2> Army and Navy Journal, v. 48, no. 41 (19Jun11), p. 124. <3> "Muster Rolls," 3d Regt, Mar11 (Unit Diary Section, Personnel Department, HQMC), hereafter "Muster Rolls" with unit, month, and year. <4> "Muster Rolls," 3d Regt, Jun11. <5> Thomas A. Bailey, "A Diplomatic History of the American People" (New York: Appleton-Century Crofts, Inc., 1947, 3d ed., rev. and enl.), p. 606ff, hereafter Bailey, "Diplomatic History." <6> Ibid. <7> Ibid. <8> Clyde H. Metcalf, "A History of the United States Marine Corps" (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1939), p. 302ff, hereafter Metcalf, "USMC Hist." <9> "Muster Rolls," MarDet, USS ARKANSAS, Apr14. <10> "Muster Rolls," Field and Staff, 3d Regt, Apr14. <11> CMC Rpt, 1914, p.470. <12> "Muster Rolls," 3d Regt, Apr14. <13> "Muster Rolls," for Marine Detachments of the following United States naval vessels: USS ARKANSAS, USS FLORIDA, USS LOUISIANA, USS MICHIGAN, USS MINNESOTA, USS NEW HAMPSHIRE, USS NEW JERSEY, USS SOUTH CAROLINA, USS UTAH, AND USS VERMONT, Apr14. <14> "CMC Rpt," 1914, p. 304; Metcalf, "USMC Hist," p. 304. <15> Bailey, "Diplomatic History," pp. 607-608. 29 <16> "Muster Rolls," 3d Regt, Sep14. <17> "Muster Rolls," 3d Regt, Dec14. <18> "Field and Staff" was the term used to designate Marine regimental headquarters' organizations in this period." <19> "Muster Rolls," 3d ProvRegt, Dec16. <20> Robert C. Kilmartin, "Indoctrination in Santo Domingo," "Marine Corps Gazette," v. 7, no. 4 (Dec22), p. 378. <21> Metcalf, "USMC Hist," p. 354ff. <22> Charles J. Miller, "Diplomatic Spurs," Marine Corps Gazette, v. 19, no. 1 (Feb35), p. 46. <23> CO, 3d ProvRegt ltr to CMC, dtd 14May19, Subj: Reports Certain Gallant Service in Santo Domingo (Santo Domingo AreaOpFile, HistBr, HQMC). <24> Metcalf, "USMC Hist," p. 358. <25> Ibid., p. 361. <26> "CMC Rpt," 1919, p. 2638. <27> Ibid. <28> CG, 2d ProvBrig ltr to CMC, dtd 19Oct20, Subj: Report of Activities of 2d Brig, U.S. Marines, for the year ending June 30th, 1920 (Santo Domingo AreaOpFile, HistBr, HQMC). <29> Metcalf, "USMC Hist," p. 365. <30> "Muster Rolls," 3d Regt, Jul20. <31> CG, 2d ProvBrig ltr to SecNav via CMC, dtd 18Jul24, Subj: Report of activities in the accomplishment of the mission of the 2dBrig, U.S. Marine Corps during the incumbency of BrigGen Harry Lee, USMC, Commanding from August 9th, 1921 to July 18, 1924, in the Dominican Republic (2d ProvBrig File, HistBr, HQMC). 30 <32> CG, 2d ProvBrig rpt to CMC dtd 21Aug22, Subj: Report of Activities of the 2dBrig, U.S. Marines, Dominican Republic for the Year Ending June 30th, 1922 (2d ProvBrig File, HistBr, HQMC). <33> U. S. Congress. Senate. "Inquiry into the Occupation and Administration of Haiti and Santo Domingo." 2 volumes. (Washington, 1921-1922). <34> "Muster Rolls," 1st Regt, Aug22. <35> CG, 2d ProvBrig ltr to SecNav via CMC, dtd 18Ju124, op. cit. <36> James J. Meade, "The Marine Corps Reserve," "Marine Corps Gazette," v. 10, no. 3 (Dec25), p. 165. <37> Marine Corps Order #13, Series of 1925 (Legal Branch, HAMC). <38> "CMC Rpt," 1926, pp. 16-17. <39> "Muster Rolls," 3d Regt, Dec25. <40> "Muster Rolls," 3d Regt, Dec26. <41> "Final Report of the CMC," quoted in "Marine Corps Gazette," v. 20, no. 4 (Nov36), p. 20. <42> "Muster Rolls," 3d Regt, Dec37. <43> "Muster Rolls," 3d Mar, Rein, Jun42. <44> CominCh/CNO plan for the Transfer of the Third Marine Regiment, Reinforced, to Samoan Area for Garrison Duty (Short title-OPIUM) dtd 16Jun42 (Samoan AreaOpFiles, B6-2, HistBr, HQMC). <45> CMC order AO-283-pjd, Subj: Transfer of 3d Marines, Reinforced and other Marine Corps Units to South Pacific (OPIUM), dtd 25Jul42 (Samoan AreaOpFiles, B6-2, HistBr, HQMC). <46> 1stLt Robert A. Aurthur and 1stLt Kenneth Cohlmia, "The Third Marine Division," LtCol Robert T. Vance, ed. (Washington: Infantry Journal Press, 1948), p. 7, hereafter Aurthur and Cohlmia, "3d MarDivHist." 31 <47> "Muster Rolls," 3d Mar, Aug-Sep42. <48> "Muster Rolls," 3d Mar, Sep42. <49> Aurther and Cohlmia, "3d MarDivHist," p. 7. <50> Defense Force, Samoan Group Unit Report, no. 6 for period 1-31Oct42 (Samoan AreaOpFiles, A1-5, HistBr, HQMC), hereafter "SamDefForUR" with date of period covered. <51> Aurthur and Cohlmia, "3d MarDivHist," p. 8. <52> CG, Defense Force, Samoan Group Order dtd 14Feb43 (Samoan AreaOpFile, B6-2, HistBr, HQMC). <53> "Muster Rolls," 3d Mar, Mar43. <54> "SamDefForUR," 1-30Apr43. <55> "Muster Rolls," 3d Mar, May43. <56> ComTransDiv 8 ltr to ComPhibForSoPac, dtd 12May43, Subj: Training - 3d Marines (Samoa AreaOpFile, HistBr, HQMC). <57> Aurthur and Cohlmia, "3d MarDivHist," pp. 8-9. <58> "Muster Rolls," 3d Mar, May43. <59> Authur and Cohlmia, "3d MarDivHist," p. 33ff. <60> "Muster Rolls," 3d Mar, Aug43. <61> Unless otherwise noted, the material in this section is derived from: Henry I. Shaw, Jr. and Maj Douglas T. Kane, "Isolation of Rabaul: History of U. S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II," v. II (Washington: HistBr, G-3 Div, HQMC, 1963), ch 3, "Assault of Cape Torokina," pt III, "Northern Solomons Operations." Maj John N. Rentz, "Bougainville and the Northern Solomons "(Washington: HistSec, Div PubInfo, HQMC, 1948); 3d MarDiv Rpt on Bougainville, dtd 21Mar44 (Bougainville AreaOpFile, HistBr, HQMC); Combat Report of the 3d Marines, Reinforced, in the Bougainville Campaign, 1Nov-25Dec43, dtd 20Jan44 (Bougainville AreaOpFile, HistBr, HQMC). 32 <62> In Marine Corps usage, the "2d Battalion, 3d Marines," for example, may be expressed as "2/3." Both terms are utilized throughout the remainder of this account. <63> Unless otherwise noted, the material in this section is derived from Maj O. R. Lodge, The Recapture of Guam (Washington: HistBr, G-3Div, HQMC, 1954); Aurthur and Cohlmia, "3d MarDivHist;" Special Action Report of Combat Team 3 dtd 13Aug44, encl of 3d MarDiv SAR (Guam AreaOpFiles, HistBr, HQMC). <64> Unless otherwise noted, the material in this section is derived from: 3d Marines Action Report, dtd 17Apr45 (Iwo Jima AreaOpFiles, HistBr, HQMC); LtCol Whitman S. Bartley, "Iwo Jima: Amphibious Epic" (Washington, HistBr, G-3 Div, HQMC, 1954); Aurthur and Cohlmia, 3d MarDivHist. <65> Unless otherwise noted, the material in this section is derived from Benis M. Frank and Henry I. Shaw, Jr., "Victory and Occupation: History of U. S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II," v. V (Washington: HistBr, G-3 Div, HQMC, 1968), pt V, "North China Marines." <66> Ibid. <67> "Muster Rolls," 3d Mar, Oct47. <68> "Muster Rolls," 3d Mar, May49. <69> "Muster Rolls," 3d Mar, Oct49. <70> Unless otherwise noted, the "Triad" (Third Marine Division Newspaper published in Japan and later in Okinawa) is the source for material in this section. <71> 3d MarBrig HistDiary dtd 4Aug51 (Unit Historical Report File, HistBr, HQMC). <72> "Unit Diary," 3d Mar, Jan52. <73> "Unit Diary," 3d Mar, Feb52. <74> "Unit Diaries," 3d Mar, Jan-Aug52. <75> For a summary of exercises held by the regiment, see "List of Marine Corps Operations, 1955-1960," (Historical Numerical File 120868, HistBr, HQMC). 33 <76> Unless otherwise noted, the material in this section is derived from: CO, 3d Mar ltr to CMC, dtd 1Dec66, Subj: Updating of "A Brief History of the 3d Marines"; "Triad;" "Muster Rolls," 3d Mar; 3d Mar CommdCs, for period Jan66 to present. <77> Ibid. Maj Jack Cahill and Mr. Jack Shulimson, "U. S. Marine Corps Operations in South Vietnam, 1Jan-30Jun65," MS, HistBr, G-3 Div, HQMC, 1968 (S). <78> For further information concerning 3d Marines conduct of the civic action program in Vietnam, see Capt Russel H. Stolfi, USMCR "U. S. Marine Corps Civic Action Efforts in Vietnam---March 1965-March 1966" (Washington: HistBr, G-3 Div, HQMC, 1968), passim. 34 APPENDIX A COMMANDING OFFICERS, 3D MARINES, 1911-1961 Introduction Since 1911, there have been a number of regimental organizations in the Marine Corps bearing the designation "Third Regiment" or "Third Marines." The following list enumerates the Commanding Officers of all of these regiments. A series of asterisks indicates that the unit was disbanded and that a newly activated regiment follows. Absence of asterisks between regimental headings indicates a redesignation. Single asterisks are placed before the names of those commanding officers who later became Commandants of the Marine Corps. 3d Regiment, 1st Provisional Brigade NOTE: Organized from Marine Detachments of the fleet at Guantanamo Bay for duty in Cuba. Maj George C. Thorpe 14 Mar 1911 - 14 Mar 1911 *LtCol Ben H. Fuller 15 Mar 1911 - 17 Jun 1911 * * * * * * * * * * 3d Regiment, 1st Marine Brigade NOTE: Organized from Marine Detachments of the fleet anchored at Vera Cruz for duty there. Maj Albertus W. Catlin 22 Apr 1914 - 30 Apr 1914 * * * * * * * * * * 3d Regiment, 1st Marine Brigade NOTE: Organized at Philadelphia for duty in Mexico. Col Franklin J. Moses 23 Apr 1914 - 20 Sep 1914 *Maj John H. Russell, Jr. 21 Sep 1914 - 14 Oct 1914 LtCol Charles G. Long 15 Oct 1914 - 4 Dec 1914 35 3d Provisional Regiment, 2d Provisional Brigade NOTE: 1st Regiment was redesignated 3d Provisional Regiment in Santo Domingo City, Dominican Republic on 20 December 1916. Provisional designation dropped July 1920. Col Theodore A. Kane 20 Dec 1916 - 31 Dec 1916 Maj Hiram I. Bearrs 1 Jan 1917 - 20 Mar 1917 *LtCol John H. Russell, Jr. 21 Mar 1917 - 18 Apr 1917 LtCol William McKelvy 19 Apr 1917 - 27 May 1917 LtCol George C. Thorpe 28 May 1917 - 19 Oct 1917 LtCol William McKelvy 20 Oct 1917 - 16 Dec 1917 (promoted to Col 21 Nov 1917) LtCol George C. Thorpe 17 Dec 1917 - 1 Feb 1918 Col Philip M. Bannon 2 Feb 1918 - 20 Nov 1918 Col Carl Gamborg-Andresen 21 Nov 1918 - 24 Apr 1920 LtCol Edward A. Greene 25 Apr 1920 - 1 Aug 1920 LtCol Charles B. Taylor 2 Aug 1920 - 25 Aug 1920 Maj Charles S. McReynolds 26 Aug 1920 - 12 Sep 1920 LtCol Henry C. Davis 13 Sep 1920 - 23 Jun 1922 LtCol Edward B. Manwaring 24 Jun 1922 - 20 Jul 1922 Col Carroll C. Carpenter 21 Jul 1922 - 1 Aug 1922 3d Regiment, Western Reserve Area NOTE: Designated by Marine Corps Order #13, Series of 1925. Maj William C. Wise, Jr. 1 Dec 1925 - 31 Aug 1927 1stLt Edward B. Moore 1 Sep 1927 - 18 Sep 1927 Maj Lowry B. Stephenson 19 Sep 1927 - 27 Aug 1929 Capt Joseph M. Swinnerton 28 Aug 1929 - 28 Oct 1929 LtCol Fred D. Kilgore 29 Oct 1929 - 20 Nov 1929 Maj Julian P. Wilcox 21 Nov 1929 - 15 Oct 1930 MajGen Logan Feland 16 Oct 1930 - 5 Jul 1931 LtCol William C. Wise, Jr. 6 Jul 1931 - 31 Mar 1933 Maj Raymond R. Wright 1 Apr 1933 - 7 Dec 1934 LtCol William C. Wise, Jr. 8 Dec 1934 - 31 Mar 1935 LtCol William B. Sullivan 1 Apr 1935 - 29 Sep 1935 LtCol David L. S. Brewster 30 Sep 1935 - 14 Jun 1936 Maj John B. Wilson 15 Jun 1936 - 15 Jun 1937 LtCol Matthew H. Kingman 16 Jun 1936 - 29 Jun 1937 LtCol Charles I. Murray 30 Jun 1937 - 1 Dec 1937 36 3d Marines, Reinforced NOTE: Activated at Marine Corps Base, New River, North Carolina, 16 Jun 1942. Col Oscar R. Cauldwell 16 Jun 1942 - 28 Feb 1943 * * * * * * * * * * 3d Marines, Reinforced, 3d Marine Division Col Oscar R. Cauldwell 1 Mar 1943 - 14 Sep 1943 Col George W. McHenry 15 Sep 1943 - 16 Dec 1943 Col Walter A. Wachtler 17 Dec 1943 - 27 Dec 1943 LtCol George Van Orden 28 Dec 1943 - 21 Jan 1944 Col William C. Hall 22 Jan 1944 - 28 Jul 1944 Col James A. Stuart 29 Jul 1944 - 30 Mar 1945 LtCol Newton B. Barkley 1 Apr 1945 - 22 Apr 1945 Col Lester S. Hamel 23 Apr 1945 - 12 Oct 1945 Col Prentice S. Geer 13 Oct 1945 - 23 Oct 1945 LtCol Ewart S. Laue 24 Oct 1945 - 13 Jan 1946 3d Marines, Fleet Marine Force, Western Pacific NOTE: 3d Battalion, 4th Marines was redesignated 3d Marines on 1 October in Tsingtao, China. Col Jaime Sabater 1 Oct 1947 - 1 Apr 1948 LtCol Frederick L. Wieseman 2 Apr 1948 - 17 Aug 1948 (promoted to Col 9 Aug 1948) Col Walfried M. Fromhold 18 Aug 1948 - 24 Oct 1948 LtCol Thomas J. Colley 25 Oct 1948 - 15 Apr 1949 LtCol Robert O. Bowen 16 Apr 1949 - 28 Apr 1949 LtCol William J. McKennan 29 Apr 1949 - 25 Jul 1949 LtCol Raymond L. Murray 26 Jul 1949 - 1 Oct 1949 3d Marines, 3d Marine Brigade NOTE: Reactivated as part of 3d Marine Brigade at Camp Joseph H. Pendleton on 12 June 1951. LtCol John J. Gormley 12 Jun 1951 - 15 Jul 1951 Col Michael S. Currin 16 Jul 1951 - 31 Dec 1951 37 3d Marines, 3d Marine Division Col Michael S. Currin 1 Jan 1952 - 14 Mar 1952 Col John G. Bouker 15 Mar 1952 - 1 Aug 1952 Col Robert H. Williams 2 Aug 1952 - 27 Mar 1954 LtCol Eugene H. Strayhorn 28 Mar 1954 - 1 Apr 1954 Col Parker R. Colmer 2 Apr 1954 - 3 Jul 1954 LtCol Cecil W. Shuler 3 Jul 1954 - 26 Jul 1954 Col Robert E. Hill 27 Jul 1954 - 28 Feb 1955 Col Edmund M. Williams 1 Mar 1955 - 20 Jun 1955 LtCol Robert E. Snider 21 Jun 1955 - 11 Aug 1955 Col Merrill M. Day 12 Aug 1955 - 28 Feb 1956 Col Willard C. Fiske 1 Mar 1956 - 15 May 1956 Col John P. Stafford 16 May 1956 - 25 Aug 1956 LtCol Earl A. Cash 26 Aug 1956 - 27 Aug 1956 Col John G. Bouker 28 Aug 1956 - 31 Aug 1957 Col William S. McCormack 1 Sep 1957 - 3 May 1958 Col Richard Nutting 4 May 1958 - 10 Oct 1958 Col Jess P. Ferrill, Jr. 11 Oct 1958 - 20 May 1959 Col George B. Kantner 21 May 1959 - 3 Oct 1959 Col Louis C. Griffin 4 Oct 1959 - 10 Dec 1959 LtCol James C. Short 11 Dec 1959 - 29 Jan 1960 Col Walter Holomon 30 Jan 1960 - 9 Sep 1960 Col Theodore F. Beeman 10 Sep 1960 - 3 Mar 1961 LtCol Arthur L. Adams 4 Mar 1961 - 26 Mar 1961 Col Charles A. Rigaud 27 Mar 1961 - 6 Jul 1961 Col Albert F. Lucas 7 Jul 1961 - 10 Apr 1962 Col Edward H. Hurst 11 Apr 1962 - 10 Apr 1963 CoI Spencer B. Pratt 11 Apr 1963 - 3 Apr 1964 LtCol Lawrence L. Graham 4 Apr 1964 - 19 May 1964 Col Virgil W. Banning 20 May 1964 - 31 Jul 1964 Col Edwin B. Wheeler 1 Aug 1964 - 22 May 1965 LtCol David H. Brooks 23 May 1965 Col Frank E. Garretson 24 May 1965 - 11 Jun 1965 Col Edwin B. Wheeler 12 Jun 1965 - 11 Aug 1965 Col Norman R. Nickerson 17 Aug 1965 - 23 Nov 1965 Col Thell H. Fisher 24 Nov 1965 - 15 Apr 1966 Col Harold A, Hayes, Jr. 16 Apr 1966 - 18 Aug 1966 Col Edward E. Hammerbeck 19 Aug 1966 - 12 Dec 1966 Col John P. Lanigan 13 Dec 1966 - 17 May 1967 Col James R. Stockman 18 May 1967 - 25 Aug 1967 Col Joseph E. Loprete 26 Aug 1967 - 38 APPENDIX B 3D MARINES MEDAL OF HONOR RECIPIENTS *Sgt Robert A. Owens 1 Nov 1943 Bougainville, B.S.I. *Sgt Herbert J. Thomas 7 Nov 1943 Bougainville, B.S.I. PFC Luther Skaggs 21-22 Jul 1944 Guam, Mariana Islands *PFC Leonard F. Mason 22 Jul 1944 Guam, Mariana Islands Sgt Robert E. O'Malley 18 Aug 1965 Republic of Vietnam *SSgt Peter S. Connor 25 Feb 1966 Republic of Vietnam (*) Indicates posthumous awards. 39 APPENDIX C HONORS OF 3D MARINES PRESIDENTIAL UNIT CITATION Guam Campaign 21 Jul 1944 - 10 Aug 1944 Vietnam Service 12 Apr 1965 - 15 Sep 1967 NAVY UNIT COMMENDATION Bougainville Campaign 1 Nov 1943 - 22 Dec 1943 Assault and seizure of the Van Tung Peninsula 18 - 23 Aug 1965 MEXICAN SERVICE STREAMER 21 Apr 1914 - 23 Apr 1914 DOMINICAN CAMPAIGN STREAMER Nov - 4 Dec 1916 EXPEDITIONARY STREAMER Dominican Republic 5 Dec 1916 - 5 Apr 1917 12 Nov 1918 - 1 Aug 1922 VICTORY STREAMER WORLD WAR I W/1 BRONZE STAR Santo Domingo 4 Apr 1917 - 11 Nov 1918 ASIATIC-PACIFIC CAMPAIGN STREAMER W/4 SILVER BANDS Bougainville Operation Occupation and Defense of 1 Nov 1943 - 15 Dec 1943 Cape Torokina Consolidation of the 15 Dec 1943 - 25 Dec 1943 Northern Solomons Marianas Operation Capture and Occupation of Guam 21 Jul 1944 - 15 Aug 1944 40 Iwo Jima Operation Assault and Occupation of Iwo Jima 19 Feb 1945 - 5 Mar 1945 VICTORY STREAMER WORLD WAR II 16 Jun 1942 - 28 Dec 1945 CHINA SERVICE STREAMER 1 Oct 1947 - 6 May 1949 NATIONAL DEFENSE SERVICE STREAMER W/1 BRONZE STAR 27 Jun 1950 - 27 Jul 1954 31 Dec 1960 - KOREAN SERVICE STREAMER 15 Aug 1943 - 27 Jul 1954 VIETNAM SERVICE STREAMER Vietnam Defense Campaign 1 Apr 1965 - 24 Dec 1965 Vietnamese Counteroffensive 25 Dec 1965 - 30 Jun 1966 Campaign Vietnamese Counteroffensive 1 Jul 1966 - 30 Jun 1967 Campaign, Phase II No Name Established 1 Jul 1967 - (date to be announced) 41 APPENDIX D <1> OPERATIONS IN WHICH UNITS OF 3D MARINES HAVE PARTICIPATED ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ <1> This table indicates only those Vietnam operations in which the infantry battalions of the 3d Marines participated. The inclusive dates shown are for the period of battalion involvement. In many cases, an infantry regiment other than the 3d Marines had operational control over the battalion(s), a situation which is noted in the "Remarks" column. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ OPERATION DATES LOCATION UNITS REMARKS/NATURE OF OPERATION ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ STARLIGHT 17-25Aug65 Vicinity Ban 3/3 Amphibious assault Thong OpCon 7th Mar PIRANHA 6-8Sep65 Cap Batanga 3/3 Amphibious assault area OpCon 7th Mar RED SNAPPER 22-25Oct65 Da Nang-Phu Bai 2/3 Search and clear area with ARVN units HARVEST MOON 8-20Dec65 Da Nang-Chu Lai 3/3 Search and destroy area MALLARD 10-17Jan66 Vicinity Song Vu 1/3 Search and destroy Gia River, SW of Da Nang DOUBLE EAGLE I 28Jan-19Feb66 Quang Tin BLT 2/3 Search and destroy Province (SLF B) w/4 USMC battalions DOUBLE EAGLE II 19Feb-1Mar66 Quang Tin BLT 2/3 Search and destroy Province (SLF B) w/4 USMC battalions 42 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ OPERATION DATES LOCATION UNITS REMARKS/NATURE OF OPERATION ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ NEW YORK/ THUA THIEN 27Feb-3Mar66 Vicinity Phu 3/3 Search and destroy Bai air with USMC/ARVN facility battalions ORANGE 1-11Apr66 Thuong Duc Tan 1/3 Support of initial area SW of installation of Da Nang SpecFor camp LIBERTY 2-29Jun66 Da Nang perimeter 2/3 Clearing operation to expand Da Nang perimeter MACON 6-14Jul66 25 mi S of Da Nang 1/3, Search and clear 3/3 operation OpCon 9th Marines HASTINGS 15Jul-10Aug66 Cam Lo area S of DMZ 1/3 Spoiling operation under OpCon TF DELTA ALLEGHANY 19-29Aug66 Dong Lam Mountains 2/3 Reconnaissance in and Song Vu Gia force/search Valley and destroy KERN 20-25Oct66 25 mi SW of Da Nang 2/3 Reconnaissance in force PRAIRIE I-IV 30Oct66- Area immediately S 1/3, Overlapping 31May67 of DMZ 2/3, search and 3/3 destroy operations in which all battalions of 3d Mar involved individually during period BEACON STAR 22-26Apr67 Quang Tri BLT 2/3 Amphibious assault/ Province (SLF B) search and (TF 79.5) destroy 43 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ OPERATION DATES LOCATION UNITS REMARKS/NATURE OF OPERATION ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ BEACON STAR 26Apr-12May67 Quang Tri BLT 2/3 Reaction Force/ (PH II) Province/Khe (SLF B) search and Sanh area (TF 79.5) destroy BEAVER CAGE 28Apr-12May67 Quang Nam BLT 1/3 Amphibious Province (TF 79.4) assault/search (SLF A) and destroy BEAU 18-26May67 Quang Tri BLT 1/3 This operation CHARGER Province (SLF A) mounted in (HICKORY I) southern (TF 79.4) conjunction half of DMZ with BELT TIGHT (HICKORY I), an amphibious assault search and destroy, in which were involved 6 USMC infantry battalions, including 3/3 BELT TIGHT 20-25May67 Quang Tri BLT 2/3 See above (HICKORY I) Province (SLF B) southern half of DMZ CIMRARRON 1Jun-2Jul67 DMZ S into Dong 3/3, Search and destroy Ha/Dong Ma 3d Mar mountains OpCon BEAR BITE 2-12Jun67 Quang Tri/Thua BLT 1/3 Amphibious (COLGATE) Thien (SLF A) assault/search Provinces and destroy in support of ARVN Operation LAM SON 63 44 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ OPERATION DATES LOCATION UNITS REMARKS/NATURE OF OPERATION ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ BEACON 18Jun-2Jul67 Quang Nam/Quang BLT 2/3 Amphibious/heliborne TORCH Tin Provinces (SLF B) assault, search Provinces and destroy MARYLAND 25-28Jun67 14 mi SE of Hue BLT 1/3 Search and destroy (SLF A) under OpCon 4th Mar BEAR CLAW 2-14Jul67 Quang Tri BLT 1/3 This operation (BUFFALO) Province (SLF A) conducted in S of DMZ conjunction with BEAVER TRACK BLT 2/3) and BUFFALO (3/3) BEAVER TRACK 2-14Jul67 Quang-Tri BLT 2/3 (BUFFALO) Province (SLF B) S of DMZ BEAR CHAIN 20-27Jul67 Quang Tri BLT 2/3 Amphibious assault/ Province (SLF B) search and destroy HICKORY II 14-16Jul67 N Quang Tri BLT 1/3, Search and destroy Province 2/3 with ARVN division KINGFISHER 16Jul-31Oct67 In DMZ 3/3 BEACON 21-30Jul67 Thua Thien BLT 1/3 Amphibious GUIDE Province (SLF A) assault/search and destroy KANGAROO 1-4Aug67 Quang Tri BLT 2/3 Amphibious KICK Province (SLF A) assault/search and destroy BEACON GATE 7-15Aug67 Quang Tri BLT 1/3 Amphibious Province (SLF A) assault/search and destroy 45 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ OPERATION DATES LOCATION UNITS REMARKS/NATURE OF OPERATION ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ COCHISE 11-28Aug67 Thong Binh-Tam 1/3 Search and destroy Ky-Hiep Duc under Op Con TF triangle 30 TF X-RAY mi S of Da Nang BELT DRIVE 27Aug-5Sep67 Quang Tri BLT 2/3 Amphibious assault/ Province (SLF B) search and destroy BEACON 31Aug-3Sep67 Thua Thien BLT 1/3 Amphibious assault/ POINT Province (SLF A) search and destroy FORTRESS 17-17Sep67 Quang Tri BLT 2/3 Amphibious assault/ SENTRY Province (SLF B) search and destroy BALLISTIC 22-28Sep67 Quang Nam BLT 1/3 Amphibious-heliborne CHARGE Province (SLF A) assault/search (SHELBYVILLE) and destroy with 2 infantry battalions MEDINA 11-20Oct67 15 km S of Quang 1/3 Search and destroy Tri City under OpCon 3d Mar FORMATION 17-24Oct67 Thua Thien BLT 2/3 Amphibious assault/ LEADER Province (SLF B) search and destroy KNOX 24Oct-4Nov67 20 mi NW of BLT 2/3 Search and destroy Da Nang (SLF B) under OpCon 7th Mar GRANITE 26Oct-6Nov67 18 mi W of Hue BLT 1/3 Search and destroy (SLF A) under OpCon 4th Mar LANCASTER 1Nov67- Central Quang 3/3 (-) Search and destroy (continuing) Tri Province, under OpCon 3d Mar vicinity Rockpile, Ca Lu, Camp Carroll 46 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ OPERATION DATES LOCATION UNITS REMARKS/NATURE OF OPERATION ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ KENTUCKY 1Nov67- Dong Ha-Gio BLT 1/3 Search and destroy (Continuing) Linh-Con (SLF A), under OpCon 9th Thien-Cam elements Mar Lo area 3/3 FOSTER 13-30Nov67 24 km SW of BLT 2/3 Search and destroy Da Nang (SLF B) under OpCon 7th Mar BALLISTIC 24-27Nov67 Quang Tri BLT 1/3 Amphibious assault/ ARC Province (SLF A) search and destroy JUNCTION 14Dec67 only 9 mi SSE of 2/3 Da Nang OSCEOLA I 2-20Jan68 S and SW Quang 1/3 Search and destroy Tri City under OpCon 1st Mar OSCEOLA II 21Jan-16Feb68 S and SW Quang 1/3 Search and destroy Tri City under OpCon 1st Mar 47

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